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China

A New History, Second Enlarged Edition

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PAPERBACK

$32.50 • £23.95 • €29.50

ISBN 9780674018280

Publication: April 2006

Short

640 pages

6-3/8 x 9-1/4 inches

60 halftones, 25 maps, 6 tables

Belknap Press

World

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  • List of Maps* and Tables**
  • Preface to the Enlarged Edition
  • Preface to the Original Edition
    • Introduction: Approaches to Understanding China’s History
      • The Variety of Historical Perspectives
      • Geography: The Contrast of North and South
      • Humankind in Nature
      • The Village: Family and Lineage
      • Inner Asia and China: The Steppe and the Sown
  • Part I. Rise and Decline of the Imperial Autocracy
    • 1. Origins: The Discoveries of Archaeology
      • Paleolithic China
      • Neolithic China
      • Excavation of Shang and Xia
      • The Rise of Central Authority
      • Western Zhou
      • Implications of the New Archaeological Record
    • 2. The First Unification: Imperial Confucianism
      • The Utility of Dynasties
      • Princes and Philosophers
      • The Confucian Code
      • Daoism
      • Unification by Qin
      • Consolidation and Expansion under the Han
      • Imperial Confucianism
      • Correlative Cosmology
      • Emperor and Scholars
    • 3. Reunification in the Buddhist Age
      • Disunion
      • The Buddhist Teaching
      • Sui–Tang Reunification
      • Buddhism and the State
      • Decline of the Tang Dynasty
      • Social Change: The Tang–Song Transition
    • 4. China’s Greatest Age: Northern and Southern Song
      • Efflorescence of Material Growth
      • Education and the Examination System
      • The Creation of Neo-Confucianism
      • Formation of Gentry Society
    • 5. The Paradox of Song China and Inner Asia
      • The Symbiosis of Wen and Wu
      • The Rise of Non-Chinese Rule over China
      • China in the Mongol Empire
      • Interpreting the Song Era
    • 6. Government in the Ming Dynasty
      • Legacies of the Hongwu Emperor
      • Fiscal Problems
      • China Turns Inward
      • Factional Politics
    • 7. The Qing Success Story
      • The Manchu Conquest
      • Institutional Adaptation
      • The Jesuit Interlude
      • Growth of Qing Control in Inner Asia
      • The Attempted Integration of Polity and Culture
  • Part II. Late Imperial China, 1600–1911
    • 8. The Paradox of Growth without Development
      • The Rise in Population
      • Diminishing Returns of Farm Labor
      • The Subjection of Women
      • Domestic Trade and Commercial Organization
      • Merchant–Official Symbiosis
      • Limitations of the Law
    • 9. Frontier Unrest and the Opening of China
      • The Weakness of State Leadership
      • The White Lotus Rebellion, 1796–1804
      • Maritime China: Origins of the Overseas Chinese
      • European Trading Companies and the Canton Trade
      • Rebellion on the Turkestan Frontier, 1826–1835
      • Opium and the Struggle for a New Order at Guangzhou, 1834–1842
      • Inauguration of the Treaty Century after 1842
    • 10. Rebellion and Restoration
      • The Great Taiping Rebellion, 1851–1864
      • Civil War
      • The Qing Restoration of the 1860s
      • Suppression of Other Rebellions
    • 11. Early Modernization and the Decline of Qing Power
      • Self-Strengthening and Its Failure
      • The Christian–Confucian Struggle
      • The Reform Movement
      • The Boxer Rising, 1898–1901
      • Demoralization
    • 12. The Republican Revolution, 1901–1916
      • A New Domestic Balance of Power
      • Suppressing Rebellion by Militarization
      • Elite Activism in the Public Sphere
      • The Japanese Influence
      • The Qing Reform Effort
      • Constitutionalism and Self-Government
      • Insoluble Systemic Problems
      • The Revolution of 1911 and Yuan Shikai’s Dictatorship
  • Part III. The Republic of China, 1912–1949
    • 13. The Quest for a Chinese Civil Society
      • The Limits of Chinese Liberalism
      • The Limits of Christian Reformism
      • The Tardy Rise of a Political Press
      • Academic Development
      • The New Culture Movement
      • The May Fourth Movement
      • Rise of the Chinese Bourgeoisie
      • Origins of the Chinese Communist Party
    • 14. The Nationalist Revolution and the Nanjing Government
      • Sun Yatsen and the United Front
      • The Accession to Power of Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kaishek)
      • The Nature of the Nanjing Government
      • Systemic Weaknesses
    • 15. The Second Coming of the Chinese Communist Party
      • Problems of Life on the Land
      • Rural Reconstruction
      • The Rise of Mao Zedong
      • The Long March, 1934–1935
      • The Role of Zhou Enlai
      • The Second United Front
    • 16. China’s War of Resistance, 1937–1945
      • Nationalist Difficulties
      • Mao’s Sinification of Marxism
      • Mao Zedong Thought
      • The Rectification Campaign of 1942–1944
      • American Support of Coalition Government
    • 17. The Civil War and the Nationalists on Taiwan
      • Why the Nationalists Failed
      • Nationalist Attack and Communist Counterattack
      • Taiwan as a Japanese Colony
      • Taiwan as the Republic of China
  • Part IV. The People’s Republic of China
    • 18. Establishing Control of State and Countryside
      • Creating the New State, 1949–1953
      • Collectivizing Agriculture
      • Collective Agriculture in Practice
      • Beginning Industrialization
      • Education and the Intellectuals
      • The Anti-Rightist Campaign, 1957–1958
    • 19. The Great Leap Forward, 1958–1960
      • Background Factors
      • The Disaster of 1959–1960
      • Revival: Seizing Control of Industrial Labor
      • Party Rectification and Education
      • The Sino–Soviet Split
      • The Great Leap Forward as a Social Movement
    • 20. The Cultural Revolution, 1966–1976
      • Underpinnings
      • Mao’s Aims and Resources
      • Role of the People’s Liberation Army
      • How the Cultural Revolution Unfolded
    • 21. The Post-Mao Reform Era [by Merle Goldman]
      • The Red Guards
      • The Seizure of Power
      • Foreign Affairs
      • Decentralization and the Third Front
      • The Succession Struggle
      • The Cultural Revolution in Retrospect
      • Aftermath
    • Epilogue: China at the Close of the Century [by Merle Goldman]
  • Note on Romanization and Citation
  • Suggested Reading
  • Publisher’s Note
  • Illustration Credits
  • Author Index
  • General Index
  • * Maps
    • 1. Land Forms of China
    • 2. Population Distribution in 1980
    • 3. Geographical Features
    • 4. Provinces
    • 5. Macroregions
    • 6. The Three Dynasties: Xia, Shang, and Zhou
    • 7. The Qin and Other Warring States
    • 8. Commanderies and Kingdoms of the Han Empire, 206 BC
    • 9. Tang Empire at Its Greatest Extent (Eighth Century)
    • 10. Population Distribution in the Han Dynasty, AD 2
    • 11. Population Distribution in the Tang Dynasty, AD 742
    • 12. Population Distribution in the Song Dynasty, ca. 1100
    • 13. The Northern Song and Liao (Qidan) Empires, ca. 1000
    • 14. The Southern Song and Jin (Ruzhen) Empires in 1142
    • 15. Mongol Conquests and the Yuan Empire in 1279
    • 16. The Grand Canal System of the Sui, Song, and Yuan Dynasties
    • 17. The Ming Empire at Its Greatest Extent
    • 18. The Voyages of Zheng He
    • 19. Rise of the Manchus
    • 20. Foreign Encroachments
    • 21. Nineteenth-Century Rebellions
    • 22. The Long March
    • 23. The Japanese Invasion of China
    • 24. The People’s Republic of China
  • ** Tables
    • 1. Major periods in Imperial China
    • 2. China’s prehistory
    • 3. Divisions of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan’s successors
    • 4. Events in China, 1796–1901
    • 5. Major turning points, 1901–1916
    • 6. Rural administrative units and average characteristics, 1974 and 1986