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The Independent Reflector, a polemical essay-journal, here republished for the first time since its appearance in 1752–53, is a pungently written commentary on the culture of pre-Revolutionary America. Seeking to awaken New Yorkers to contemporary social problems, William Livingston urged reforms of all kinds and took advanced positions on key issues religious freedom, freedom of the press, public education. Since each of the issues is discussed in a framework of general ideas, the volume provides a compendium of progressive thought in America on the eve of the Revolutionary controversy.