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The Soldier and the State

The Theory and Politics of Civil–Military Relations

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$39.00 • £28.95 • €35.00

ISBN 9780674817364

Publication Date: 09/15/1981


560 pages

6 x 9 inches

Belknap Press


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  • Introduction: National Security and Civil–Military Relations
  • Part I: Military Institutions and the State: Theoretical and Historical Perspectives
    • 1. Officership as a Profession
      • Professionalism and the Military
      • The Concept of Profession
      • The Military Profession
    • 2. The Rise of the Military Profession in Western Society
      • A New Social Type
      • Mercenary and Aristocratic Officership
      • Eighteenth-Century Aristocratic Institutions
      • Preprofessional Meals: The Military Craft and the Natural Genius
      • The Origins of Professionalism
      • The Emergence of Professional Institutions, 1800–1875
      • European Professionalism: General Upton’s Summary, 1875
      • Formulation of the Professional Ethic: The Autonomy and Sub-Ordination of War In Clausewitz’s Vom Kriege
    • 3. The Military Mind: Conservative Realism of the Professional Military Ethic
      • The Meaning of the Military Mind
      • The Professional Military Ethic
    • 4. Power, Professionalism, and Ideology: Civil–Military Relations in Theory
      • The Varieties of Civilian Control
      • The Two Levels of Civil–Military Relations
      • The Equilibrium of Objective Civilian Control
      • The Patterns of Civil–Military Relations
    • 5. Germany and Japan: Civil–Military Relations in Practice
      • The German and Japanese Patterns
      • Germany: The Tragedy of Professional Militarism
      • Japan: The Continuity of Political Militarism
  • Part II: Military Power in America: The Historical Experience, 1789–1940
    • 6. The Ideological Constant: The Liberal Society versus Military Professionalism
      • The Historical Constants of American Civil–Military Relations
      • The Prevalence of Liberalism in the United States
      • The Liberal Approach to Military Affairs
      • The Military Hero in Liberal Politics
    • 7. The Structural Constant: The Conservative Constitution versus Civilian Control
      • The Constitutional Absence of Objective Civilian Control
      • The Framers and Civilian Control
      • The Militia Clauses and Military Federalism: The Empire within an Empire
      • The Separation of Powers: Dual Control over the National Forces
      • The Commander in Chief Clause: The Political–Military Hierarchy
      • Civilian Control and Constitutional Government
    • 8. The Roots of the American Military Tradition before the Civil War
      • The Three Strands of American Militarism
      • The Failure of Federalism: Hamilton’s Abortive Professionalism
      • Technicism
      • Popularism
      • Professionalism
    • 9. The Creation of the American Military Profession
      • The Dominance of Business Pacifism: Industrialism versus Militarism
      • Years of Isolation: The Dark and the Bright
      • The Creative Core: Sherman, Upton, Luce
      • The Institutions of Professionalism
      • The Making of the American Military Mind
    • 10. The Failure of the Neo-Hamiltonian Compromise, 1890–1920
      • The Nature of Neo-Hamiltonianism
      • Mahan And Wood: The Tragedy of the Military Publicist
      • The Abortive Identification With Society, 1918–1925
    • 11. The Constancy of Interwar Civil–Military Relations
      • Business-Reform Hostility and Military Professionalism
      • Reform Liberalism: The Pragmatic Usages of Militarism
      • Military Institutions
      • The American Military Ethic, 1920–1941
    • 12. World War II: The Alchemy of Power
      • Civil–Military Relations in Total War
      • Military Authority and Influence in Grand Strategy
      • The Military Adjustment to Wartime Power
      • Civil–Military Relations in Economic Mobilization
      • The Fruits of Harmony and Acrimony
  • Part III: The Crisis of American Civil–Military Relations, 1940–1955
    • 13. Civil–Military Relations in the Postwar Decade
      • The Alternatives of Civil–Military Relations
      • Postwar Perspectives on Civil–Military Relations
      • Military Influence in American Society
    • 14. The Political Roles of the Joint Chiefs
      • Political Roles: Substantive and Advocatory
      • The Joint Chiefs in the Truman Administration
      • The Korean War: The Generals, the Troops, and the Public
      • The Joint Chiefs in the First Two Years of the Eisenhower Administration
      • Conclusion
    • 15. The Separation of Powers and Cold War Defense
      • The Impact of the Separation of Powers
      • The Separation of Powers versus the Separation of Functions
      • The Separation of Powers versus Military Professionalism
      • The Separation of Powers versus Strategic Monism
    • 16. Departmental Structure of Civil–Military Relations
      • The Organization Problems of the Postwar Decade
      • The Joint Chiefs of Staff: Legal Form and Political Reality
      • The Comptroller: Superego of the Department of Defense
      • The Role of the Secretary
      • The Needs of the Office
    • 17. Toward a New Equilibrium
      • The Requisite for Security
      • Changes in the Ideological Environment
      • Conservatism and Security
      • The Worth of the Military Ideal
  • Notes
  • Index