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Arthur Wilson reaches the conclusion that Cardinal Fleury was a skillful and successful diplomatist, and that the ostensible “weakness” for which his contemporaries reproached him was in reality the effect of subtle craft. Fleury managed the reversion of Lorraine to France, recaptured for his country the diplomatic hegemony of Europe, and favored an alliance with Austria comparable to that which later constituted the “Diplomatic Revolution” of 1756. The author has described the notable revival of French trade and navigation during these years, a revival which was fostered by the diplomatic, commercial, and naval policies of Fleury’s administration.