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“Here is 1,400 years of human culture, all the texts that survive from one of the greatest civilizations human beings have ever built—and it can all fit in a bookcase or two. To capture all the fugitive texts of the ancient world, some of which survived the Dark Ages in just a single moldering copy in some monastic library, and turn them into affordable, clear, sturdy accurate books, is one of the greatest accomplishments of modern scholarship—and one of the most democratic.”—Adam Kirsch

The Loeb Classical Library® is the only existing series of books which, through original text and English translation, gives access to all that is important in Greek and Latin literature. Epic and lyric poetry; tragedy and comedy; history, travel, philosophy, and oratory; the great medical writers and mathematicians; those Church fathers who made particular use of pagan culture—in short, our entire classical heritage is represented here in convenient and well-printed pocket volumes in which an up-to-date text and accurate and literate English translation face each other page by page. The editors provide substantive introductions as well as essential critical and explanatory notes and selective bibliographies.

In honor of the 100th anniversary of the Loeb Classical Library, celebrated in 2011, Adam Kirsch wrote a three-part essay in the Barnes & Noble Review. Read parts one, two, and three.

And, in the pages of Buried History, G. H. R. Horsley, Professor of Classics at the University of New England in New South Wales, Australia, and a Loeb Classical Library translator, assessed the library’s achievements, innovations, and shifts in emphasis across its first hundred years. Download the article [PDF, 4 MB].

Now Available: The digital Loeb Classical Library (loebclassics.com) extends the founding mission of James Loeb with an interconnected, fully searchable, perpetually growing virtual library of all that is important in Greek and Latin literature. Read more about the site’s features »

The Loeb Classical Library® is published and distributed by Harvard University Press. It is a registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.

Below is a list of in-print works in this collection, presented in series order or publication order as applicable.

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Cover: A Loeb Classical Library Reader

A Loeb Classical Library Reader

Loeb Classical Library

This selection of lapidary nuggets drawn from 33 of antiquity’s major authors includes poetry, dialogue, philosophical writing, history, descriptive reporting, satire, and fiction—giving a glimpse at the wide range of arts and sciences, thought and styles, of Greco-Roman culture. The selections span twelve centuries, from Homer to Saint Jerome. The texts and translations are reproduced as they appear in Loeb volumes, offering a taste of the ideas characteristic of the splendid culture to which we are heir.

1.Cover: Argonautica

Argonautica

Apollonius Rhodius
Race, William H.

Apollonius RhodiusArgonautica, composed in the third century BCE, is an epic retelling of Jason’s quest for the golden fleece. It greatly influenced Roman authors such as Catullus, Virgil, and Ovid, and was imitated by Valerius Flaccus.

2.Cover: Roman History, Volume I: Books 1-8.1

Roman History, Volume I: Books 1-8.1

Appian
White, Horace

Appian (first–second century CE), a Greek from Antioch, offers a history of the rise of Rome but often shows us events from the point of view of the conquered peoples. Books on the Spanish, Hannibalic, Punic, Illyrian, Syrian, Mythridatic, and Civil wars are extant.

3.Cover: Roman History, Volume II: Books 8.2-12

Roman History, Volume II: Books 8.2-12

Appian
White, Horace

Appian (first–second century CE), a Greek from Antioch, offers a history of the rise of Rome but often shows us events from the point of view of the conquered peoples. Books on the Spanish, Hannibalic, Punic, Illyrian, Syrian, Mythridatic, and Civil wars are extant.

4.Cover: Roman History, Volume III: The Civil Wars, Books 1-3.26

Roman History, Volume III: The Civil Wars, Books 1-3.26

Appian
White, Horace

Appian (first–second century CE), a Greek from Antioch, offers a history of the rise of Rome but often shows us events from the point of view of the conquered peoples. Books on the Spanish, Hannibalic, Punic, Illyrian, Syrian, Mythridatic, and Civil wars are extant.

5.Cover: Roman History, Volume IV: The Civil Wars, Books 3.27-5

Roman History, Volume IV: The Civil Wars, Books 3.27-5

Appian
White, Horace

Appian (first–second century CE), a Greek from Antioch, offers a history of the rise of Rome but often shows us events from the point of view of the conquered peoples. Books on the Spanish, Hannibalic, Punic, Illyrian, Syrian, Mythridatic, and Civil wars are extant.

6.Cover: Catullus. Tibullus. Pervigilium Veneris

Catullus. Tibullus. Pervigilium Veneris

Catullus
Tibullus
Cornish, F. W.
Postgate, J. P.
Mackail, J. W.

Catullus (84–54 BCE) couples consummate poetic artistry with intensity of feeling. Tibullus (c. 54–19 BCE) proclaims love for Delia and Nemesis in elegy. The beautiful verse of the Pervigilium Veneris (fourth century CE?) celebrates a spring festival in honour of the goddess of love.

7.Cover: Letters to Atticus, Volume I

Letters to Atticus, Volume I

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106–43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

8.Cover: Letters to Atticus, Volume II

Letters to Atticus, Volume II

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106–43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

9.Cover: Suppliant Women. Electra. Heracles

Suppliant Women. Electra. Heracles

Euripides
Kovacs, David

Euripides (c. 485–406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

10.Cover: Trojan Women. Iphigenia among the Taurians. Ion

Trojan Women. Iphigenia among the Taurians. Ion

Euripides
Kovacs, David

Euripides (c. 485–406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

11.Cover: Helen. Phoenician Women. Orestes

Helen. Phoenician Women. Orestes

Euripides
Kovacs, David

Euripides (c. 485–406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

12.Cover: Cyclops. Alcestis. Medea

Cyclops. Alcestis. Medea

Euripides
Kovacs, David

Euripides (c. 485–406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

13.Cover: Orations 1-5

Orations 1-5

Julian
Wright, Wilmer C.

The surviving works of the Roman Emperor Julian “the Apostate” (331 or 332–363 CE) include eight Orations; Misopogon (Beard-Hater), assailing the morals of the people of Antioch; more than eighty Letters; and fragments of Against the Galileans, written mainly to show that the Old Testament lacks evidence for the idea of Christianity.

14.Cover: Phalaris. Hippias or The Bath. Dionysus. Heracles. Amber or The Swans. The Fly. Nigrinus. Demonax. The Hall. My Native Land. Octogenarians. A True Story. Slander. The Consonants at Law. The Carousal (Symposium) or The Lapiths

Phalaris. Hippias or The Bath. Dionysus. Heracles. Amber or The Swans. The Fly. Nigrinus. Demonax. The Hall. My Native Land. Octogenarians. A True Story. Slander. The Consonants at Law. The Carousal (Symposium) or The Lapiths

Lucian
Harmon, A. M.

Lucian (c. 120–190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

15.Cover: Satyricon. Apocolocyntosis

Satyricon. Apocolocyntosis

Petronius
Seneca
Heseltine, Michael
Rouse, W. H. D.

Petronius’s Satyricon, probably written between 54 and 68 CE, presents in lurid detail the disreputable adventures of Encolpius, including his attendance at Trimalchio’s wildly extravagant dinner party. The Apocolocyntosis (Pumpkinification), a satire on the death and apotheosis of the emperor Claudius, is attributed to Seneca (c. 4 BCE–54 CE).

16.Cover: Apollonius of Tyana, Volume I: Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Books 1-4

Apollonius of Tyana, Volume I: Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Books 1-4

Philostratus
Jones, Christopher P.

In his Life of Apollonius, Philostratus (second to third century CE) portrays a first-century CE teacher, religious reformer, and perceived rival to Jesus. Apollonius’s letters, ancient reports about him, and a letter by Eusebius (fourth century CE) that is now central to the history of Philostratus’s work add to the portrait.

17.Cover: Apollonius of Tyana, Volume II: Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Books 5-8

Apollonius of Tyana, Volume II: Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Books 5-8

Philostratus
Jones, Christopher P.

In his Life of Apollonius, Philostratus (second to third century CE) portrays a first-century CE teacher, religious reformer, and perceived rival to Jesus. Apollonius’s letters, ancient reports about him, and a letter by Eusebius (fourth century CE) that is now central to the history of Philostratus’s work add to the portrait.

18.Cover: Elegies

Elegies

Propertius
Goold, G. P.

The passionate and dramatic elegies of Propertius (c. 50–soon after 16 BCE) gained him a reputation as one of Rome’s finest love poets. He portrays the uneven course of his love affair with Cynthia and also tells us much about the society of his time, then in later poems turns to the legends of ancient Rome.

19.Cover: The Fall of Troy

The Fall of Troy

Quintus Smyrnaeus
Way, A. S.

In The Fall of Troy, Quintus Smyrnaeus (fourth century CE?) seeks to continue in Homer’s style the tale of Troy from the point at which the Iliad closes. Quintus’s fourteen-book epic poem includes the death of Achilles and the making of the Wooden Horse. It ends with the great storm that by the wrath of heaven shattered the departing Achaean fleet.

20.Cover: Ajax. Electra. Oedipus Tyrannus

Ajax. Electra. Oedipus Tyrannus

Sophocles
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh

Sophocles (497/6–406 BCE), considered one of the world’s greatest poets, forged tragedy from the heroic excess of myth and legend. Seven complete plays are extant, including Oedipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Antigone, and Philoctetes. Among many fragments that also survive is a substantial portion of the satyr drama The Searchers.

21.Cover: Antigone. The Women of Trachis. Philoctetes. Oedipus at Colonus

Antigone. The Women of Trachis. Philoctetes. Oedipus at Colonus

Sophocles
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh

Sophocles (497/6–406 BCE), considered one of the world’s greatest poets, forged tragedy from the heroic excess of myth and legend. Seven complete plays are extant, including Oedipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Antigone, and Philoctetes. Among many fragments that also survive is a substantial portion of the satyr drama The Searchers.

22.Cover: The Woman of Andros. The Self-Tormentor. The Eunuch

The Woman of Andros. The Self-Tormentor. The Eunuch

Terence
Barsby, John

The six plays by Terence (died 159 BCE), all extant, imaginatively reformulate Greek New Comedy in realistic scenes and refined Latin. They include Phormio, a comedy of intrigue and trickery; The Brothers, which explores parental education of sons; and The Eunuch, which presents the most sympathetically drawn courtesan in Roman comedy.

23.Cover: Phormio. The Mother-in-Law. The Brothers

Phormio. The Mother-in-Law. The Brothers

Terence
Barsby, John

The six plays by Terence (died 159 BCE), all extant, imaginatively reformulate Greek New Comedy in realistic scenes and refined Latin. They include Phormio, a comedy of intrigue and trickery; The Brothers, which explores parental education of sons; and The Eunuch, which presents the most sympathetically drawn courtesan in Roman comedy.

24.Cover: The Apostolic Fathers, Volume I: I Clement. II Clement. Ignatius. Polycarp. Didache

The Apostolic Fathers, Volume I: I Clement. II Clement. Ignatius. Polycarp. Didache

Ehrman, Bart D.

The writings of the Apostolic Fathers (first and second centuries CE) give a rich and diverse picture of Christian life and thought in the period immediately after New Testament times. Some were accorded almost Scriptural authority in the early Church.

25.Cover: The Apostolic Fathers, Volume II: Epistle of Barnabas. Papias and Quadratus. Epistle to Diognetus. The Shepherd of Hermas

The Apostolic Fathers, Volume II: Epistle of Barnabas. Papias and Quadratus. Epistle to Diognetus. The Shepherd of Hermas

Ehrman, Bart D.

The writings of the Apostolic Fathers (first and second centuries CE) give a rich and diverse picture of Christian life and thought in the period immediately after New Testament times. Some were accorded almost Scriptural authority in the early Church.

26.Cover: Confessions, Volume I: Books 1-8

Confessions, Volume I: Books 1-8

Augustine
Hammond, Carolyn J.-B.

Confessions is a spiritual autobiography of Augustine’s early life, family, associations, and explorations of alternative religious and theological viewpoints as he moved toward his conversion. Cast as a prayer addressed to God, it offers a gripping personal story and a philosophical exploration destined to have broad and lasting impact.

27.Cover: Confessions, Volume II: Books 9-13

Confessions, Volume II: Books 9-13

Augustine
Watts, William

In the Confessions, Augustine (354–430 CE) offers his great autobiography.

28.Cover: Greek Bucolic Poets: Theocritus. Bion. Moschus

Greek Bucolic Poets: Theocritus. Bion. Moschus

Edmonds, J. M.
Theocritus
Bion
Moschus

Theocritus (third century BCE) was the founder of bucolic poetry. The extant poems of Moschus (second century BCE) and Bion (probably second and first centuries BCE) are not really bucolic, but Bion’s Lament for Adonis is floridly brilliant. Pattern poems are also found in the Greek Anthology, a work of many centuries.

29.Cover: Orations 6-8. Letters to Themistius, To the Senate and People of Athens, To a Priest. The Caesars. Misopogon

Orations 6-8. Letters to Themistius, To the Senate and People of Athens, To a Priest. The Caesars. Misopogon

Julian
Wright, Wilmer C.

The surviving works of the Roman Emperor Julian “the Apostate” (331 or 332–363 CE) include eight Orations; Misopogon (Beard-Hater), assailing the morals of the people of Antioch; more than eighty Letters; and fragments of Against the Galileans, written mainly to show that the Old Testament lacks evidence for the idea of Christianity.

30.Cover: On Duties

On Duties

Cicero
Miller, Walter

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

31.Cover: Lives of the Caesars, Volume I: Julius. Augustus. Tiberius. Gaius. Caligula

Lives of the Caesars, Volume I: Julius. Augustus. Tiberius. Gaius. Caligula

Suetonius
Rolfe, J. C.

Enriched by anecdotes, gossip, and details of character and personal appearance, Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius (born c. 70 CE) is a valuable and colorful source of information about the first twelve Roman emperors, Roman imperial politics, and Roman imperial society. Part of Suetonius’s Lives of Illustrious Men (of letters) also survives.

32.Cover: Roman History, Volume I: Books 1-11

Roman History, Volume I: Books 1-11

Dio Cassius
Cary, Earnest
Foster, Herbert B.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150–235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio’s work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

33.Cover: Odes and Epodes

Odes and Epodes

Horace
Rudd, Niall

The poetry of Horace (born 65 BCE) is richly varied, its focus moving between public and private concerns, urban and rural settings, Stoic and Epicurean thought. His Odes cover a wide range of moods and topics. Love and political concerns are frequent themes of the Epodes.

34.Cover: Barlaam and Ioasaph

Barlaam and Ioasaph

John Damascene
Woodward, G. R.
Mattingly, Harold

Barlaam and Ioasaph, a hagiographic novel in which an Indian prince becomes aware of the world’s miseries and is converted to Christianity by a monk, is a Christianized version of the legend of the Buddha. Though often attributed to John Damascene (c. 676–749 CE), it was probably translated from Georgian into Greek in the eleventh century CE.

35.Cover: Agricola. Germania. Dialogue on Oratory

Agricola. Germania. Dialogue on Oratory

Tacitus
Hutton, M.
Peterson, W.

Tacitus (c. 55–c. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. Agricola includes Agricola’s career in Britain. Germania is a description of German tribes as known to the Romans. Dialogus concerns the decline of oratory and education.

36.Cover: Euthyphro. Apology. Crito. Phaedo. Phaedrus

Euthyphro. Apology. Crito. Phaedo. Phaedrus

Plato
Fowler, Harold North

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

37.Cover: Roman History, Volume II: Books 12-35

Roman History, Volume II: Books 12-35

Dio Cassius
Cary, Earnest
Foster, Herbert B.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150–235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio’s work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

38.Cover: Lives of the Caesars, Volume II: Claudius. Nero. Galba, Otho, and Vitellius. Vespasian. Titus, Domitian. Lives of Illustrious Men: Grammarians and Rhetoricians. Poets (Terence. Virgil. Horace. Tibullus. Persius. Lucan). Lives of Pliny the Elder and Passienus Crispus

Lives of the Caesars, Volume II: Claudius. Nero. Galba, Otho, and Vitellius. Vespasian. Titus, Domitian. Lives of Illustrious Men: Grammarians and Rhetoricians. Poets (Terence. Virgil. Horace. Tibullus. Persius. Lucan). Lives of Pliny the Elder and Passienus Crispus

Suetonius
Rolfe, J. C.

Enriched by anecdotes, gossip, and details of character and personal appearance, Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius (born c. 70 CE) is a valuable and colorful source of information about the first twelve Roman emperors, Roman imperial politics, and Roman imperial society. Part of Suetonius’s Lives of Illustrious Men (of letters) also survives.

39.Cover: Civil Wars

Civil Wars

Caesar
Peskett, A. G.

In his Gallic War and Civil Wars, Caesar (100–44 BCE) provides vigorous, direct, clear, third-personal, and largely unemotional records of his own campaigns.

40.Cover: On Ends

On Ends

Cicero
Rackham, H.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

41.Cover: Heroides. Amores

Heroides. Amores

Ovid
Showerman, Grant

In Heroides, Ovid (43 BCE–17 CE) allows legendary women to narrate their memories and express their emotions in verse letters to absent husbands and lovers. Ovid’s Amores are three books of elegies ostensibly about the poet’s love affair with his mistress Corinna.

42.Cover: Metamorphoses, Volume I: Books 1-8

Metamorphoses, Volume I: Books 1-8

Ovid
Miller, Frank Justus

In his most influential work, the Metamorphoses, Ovid (43 BCE–17 CE) weaves a hexametric whole from a huge range of myths, which are connected by the theme of change and ingeniously linked as the narrative proceeds from earliest creation to transformation in Ovid’s own time.

43.Cover: Metamorphoses, Volume II: Books 9-15

Metamorphoses, Volume II: Books 9-15

Ovid
Miller, Frank Justus

In his most influential work, the Metamorphoses, Ovid (43 BCE–17 CE) weaves a hexametric whole from a huge range of myths, which are connected by the theme of change and ingeniously linked as the narrative proceeds from earliest creation to transformation in Ovid’s own time.

44.Cover: Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass), Volume I: Books 1-6

Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass), Volume I: Books 1-6

Apuleius
Hanson, J. Arthur

The Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass) of Apuleius (born c. 125 CE) is a romance combining realism and magic. Lucius wants the sensations of a bird, but by pharmaceutical accident becomes an ass. The bulk of the novel recounts his adventures as an animal, but Lucius also recounts many stories he overhears, including that of Cupid and Psyche.

45.Cover: Leucippe and Clitophon

Leucippe and Clitophon

Achilles Tatius
Gaselee, S.

Leucippe and Clitophon, written in the second century CE, is exceptional among the ancient romances in being a first-person narrative: the adventures of the young couple are recounted by the hero himself. Achilles Tatius’s style is notable for descriptive detail and for his engaging digressions.

46.Cover: Lives, Volume I: Theseus and Romulus. Lycurgus and Numa. Solon and Publicola

Lives, Volume I: Theseus and Romulus. Lycurgus and Numa. Solon and Publicola

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

47.Cover: Lives, Volume II: Themistocles and Camillus. Aristides and Cato Major. Cimon and Lucullus

Lives, Volume II: Themistocles and Camillus. Aristides and Cato Major. Cimon and Lucullus

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

48.Cover: History of the Wars, Volume I: Books 1-2. (Persian War)

History of the Wars, Volume I: Books 1-2. (Persian War)

Procopius
Dewing, H. B.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire’s enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

49.Cover: Geography, Volume I: Books 1-2

Geography, Volume I: Books 1-2

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE–c. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

50.Cover: Geography, Volume II: Books 3-5

Geography, Volume II: Books 3-5

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE–c. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

51.Cover: Cyropaedia, Volume I: Books 1-4

Cyropaedia, Volume I: Books 1-4

Xenophon
Miller, Walter

Cyropaedia, by Xenophon (c. 430–c. 354 BCE), is a historical romance on the education of the sixth century BCE Persian king Cyrus the Elder that reflects Xenophon’s ideas about rulers and government.

52.Cover: Cyropaedia, Volume II: Books 5-8

Cyropaedia, Volume II: Books 5-8

Xenophon
Miller, Walter

Cyropaedia, by Xenophon (c. 430–c. 354 BCE), is a historical romance on the education of the sixth century BCE Persian king Cyrus the Elder that reflects Xenophon’s ideas about rulers and government.

53.Cover: Roman History, Volume III: Books 36-40

Roman History, Volume III: Books 36-40

Dio Cassius
Cary, Earnest
Foster, Herbert B.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150–235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio’s work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

54.Cover: The Downward Journey or The Tyrant. Zeus Catechized. Zeus Rants. The Dream or The Cock. Prometheus.  Icaromenippus or The Sky-man. Timon or The Misanthrope. Charon or The Inspectors. Philosophies for Sale

The Downward Journey or The Tyrant. Zeus Catechized. Zeus Rants. The Dream or The Cock. Prometheus. Icaromenippus or The Sky-man. Timon or The Misanthrope. Charon or The Inspectors. Philosophies for Sale

Lucian
Harmon, A. M.

Lucian (c. 120–190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

55.Cover: Letters, Volume I: Books 1-7

Letters, Volume I: Books 1-7

Pliny the Younger
Radice, Betty

The Letters of Pliny the Younger (c. 61–c. 112 CE), a polished social document of his times, include descriptions of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE and the earliest pagan accounts of Christians. The Panegyricus is an expanded, published version of Pliny’s oration of thanks to the Emperor Trajan in 100 CE.

56.Cover: Olympian Odes. Pythian Odes

Olympian Odes. Pythian Odes

Pindar
Race, William H.

Pindar (c. 518–438 BCE), highly esteemed as lyric poet by the ancients, commemorates in complex verse the achievements of athletes and powerful rulers at the four great Panhellenic festivals—the Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games—against a backdrop of divine favor, human failure, heroic legend, and aristocratic Greek ethos.

57.Cover: Theogony. Works and Days. Testimonia

Theogony. Works and Days. Testimonia

Hesiod
Most, Glenn W.

The two extant poems of Hesiod (eighth or seventh century BCE) are Theogony, in which he charts the history of the divine world, and Works and Days, in which he delivers moral precepts and practical advice for the world of men.

58.Cover: Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius
Haines, C. R.

Marcus Aurelius (121–180 CE), philosopher-emperor, wrote the Meditations (his title was “The matters addressed to himself”) in periods of solitude during military campaigns. His ethical, religious, and existential reflections have endured as an expression of Stoicism, a text for students of that philosophy, and a guide to the moral life.

59.Cover: Letters, Volume II: Books 8-10. Panegyricus

Letters, Volume II: Books 8-10. Panegyricus

Pliny the Younger
Radice, Betty

The Letters of Pliny the Younger (c. 61–c. 112 CE), a polished social document of his times, include descriptions of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE and the earliest pagan accounts of Christians. The Panegyricus is an expanded, published version of Pliny’s oration of thanks to the Emperor Trajan in 100 CE.

60.Cover: Amphitryon. The Comedy of Asses. The Pot of Gold. The Two Bacchises. The Captives

Amphitryon. The Comedy of Asses. The Pot of Gold. The Two Bacchises. The Captives

Plautus
de Melo, Wolfgang

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205–184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

61.Cover: Casina. The Casket Comedy. Curculio. Epidicus. The Two Menaechmuses

Casina. The Casket Comedy. Curculio. Epidicus. The Two Menaechmuses

Plautus
de Melo, Wolfgang

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205–184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

62.Cover: Tragedies, Volume I: Hercules. Trojan Women. Phoenician Women. Medea. Phaedra

Tragedies, Volume I: Hercules. Trojan Women. Phoenician Women. Medea. Phaedra

Seneca
Fitch, John G.

Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) authored verse tragedies that strongly influenced Shakespeare and other Renaissance dramatists. Plots are based on myth, in keeping with classical tradition, but themes reflect imperial Roman politics. Powerful rhetoric conveys intensity and the perspective is much bleaker than in Seneca’s prose writings.

63.Cover: Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid: Books 1-6

Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid: Books 1-6

Virgil
Fairclough, H. Rushton

Virgil (70–19 BCE) was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. His Eclogues deal with bucolic life and love, his Georgics with tillage, trees, cattle, and bees. His Aeneid is an epic on the theme of Rome’s origins. Poems of the Appendix Vergiliana are traditionally, but in most cases probably wrongly, attributed to Virgil.

64.Cover: Aeneid: Books 7-12. Appendix Vergiliana

Aeneid: Books 7-12. Appendix Vergiliana

Virgil
Fairclough, H. Rushton

Virgil (70–19 BCE) was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. His Eclogues deal with bucolic life and love, his Georgics with tillage, trees, cattle, and bees. His Aeneid is an epic on the theme of Rome’s origins. Poems of the Appendix Vergiliana are traditionally, but in most cases probably wrongly, attributed to Virgil.

65.Cover: Lives, Volume III: Pericles and Fabius Maximus. Nicias and Crassus

Lives, Volume III: Pericles and Fabius Maximus. Nicias and Crassus

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

66.Cover: Roman History, Volume IV: Books 41-45

Roman History, Volume IV: Books 41-45

Dio Cassius
Cary, Earnest
Foster, Herbert B.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150–235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio’s work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

67.Cover: The Greek Anthology, Volume I: Book 1: Christian Epigrams. Book 2: Christodorus of Thebes in Egypt. Book 3: The Cyzicene Epigrams. Book 4: The Proems of the Different Anthologies. Book 5: The Amatory Epigrams. Book 6: The Dedicatory Epigrams

The Greek Anthology, Volume I: Book 1: Christian Epigrams. Book 2: Christodorus of Thebes in Egypt. Book 3: The Cyzicene Epigrams. Book 4: The Proems of the Different Anthologies. Book 5: The Amatory Epigrams. Book 6: The Dedicatory Epigrams

Paton, W. R.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is the name given to a collection over many centuries of about 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but usually not epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

67.Cover: The Greek Anthology, Volume I: Book 1: Christian Epigrams. Book 2: Description of the Statues in the Gymnasium of Zeuxippus. Book 3: Epigrams in the Temple of Apollonis at Cyzicus. Book 4: Prefaces to Various Anthologies. Book 5: Erotic Epigrams

The Greek Anthology, Volume I: Book 1: Christian Epigrams. Book 2: Description of the Statues in the Gymnasium of Zeuxippus. Book 3: Epigrams in the Temple of Apollonis at Cyzicus. Book 4: Prefaces to Various Anthologies. Book 5: Erotic Epigrams

Paton, W. R.

The Greek Anthology contains some 4,500 Greek poems in the sparkling, diverse genre of epigram, written by more than a hundred composers, collected over centuries, and arranged by subject. This Loeb edition replaces the earlier edition by W. R. Paton, with a Greek text and ample notes reflecting current scholarship.

68.Cover: The Greek Anthology, Volume II: Book 7: Sepulchral Epigrams. Book 8: The Epigrams of St. Gregory the Theologian

The Greek Anthology, Volume II: Book 7: Sepulchral Epigrams. Book 8: The Epigrams of St. Gregory the Theologian

Paton, W. R.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is the name given to a collection over many centuries of about 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but usually not epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

69.Cover: Daphnis and Chloe. Anthia and Habrocomes

Daphnis and Chloe. Anthia and Habrocomes

Longus
Xenophon of Ephesus
Henderson, Jeffrey

Longus’s Daphnis and Chloe (second or early third century CE), in which an idealized pastoral environment provides the setting as a boy and girl discover their sexuality, is one of the great works of world literature. Xenophon’s Anthia and Habrocomes (first century CE) is perhaps the earliest extant novel.

70.Cover: Enquiry into Plants, Volume I: Books 1-5

Enquiry into Plants, Volume I: Books 1-5

Theophrastus
Hort, Arthur F.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370–c. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle’s zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the former, Theophrastus classifies and describes varieties—covering trees, plants of particular regions, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and cereals; in the last of the nine books he focuses on plant juices and medicinal properties of herbs. His On Odours and Weather Signs are minor treatises.

71.Cover: On the Natural Faculties

On the Natural Faculties

Galen
Brock, A. J.

Galen (129–199 CE) crystallized all the best work of the Greek medical schools which had preceded his own time, including Hippocrates’s foundational work six hundred years earlier. It is in the form of Galenism that Greek medicine was transmitted to later ages.

72.Cover: The Gallic War

The Gallic War

Caesar
Edwards, H. J.

In his Gallic War and Civil Wars, Caesar (100–44 BCE) provides vigorous, direct, clear, third-personal, and largely unemotional records of his own campaigns.

73.Cover: Nicomachean Ethics

Nicomachean Ethics

Aristotle
Rackham, H.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

74.Cover: Theological Tractates. The Consolation of Philosophy

Theological Tractates. The Consolation of Philosophy

Boethius
Stewart, H. F.
Rand, E. K.
Tester, S. J.

The classical and Christian worlds meet in Boethius (c. 480–524 CE), the last writer of purely literary Latin from antiquity. His Tractates examine the Trinity and incarnation in Aristotelian terms. His Consolation of Philosophy, a dialogue between himself and Philosophy, is theistic in tone but draws on Greek, especially Neoplatonist, sources.

75.Cover: Epistles, Volume I: Epistles 1-65

Epistles, Volume I: Epistles 1-65

Seneca
Gummere, Richard M.

In 124 epistles Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) writes to Lucilius, occasionally about technical problems of philosophy, but more often in a relaxed style about moral and ethical questions, relating them to personal experiences. He thus presents a Stoic philosopher’s thoughts about the good life in a contemporary context.

76.Cover: Epistles, Volume II: Epistles 66-92

Epistles, Volume II: Epistles 66-92

Seneca
Gummere, Richard M.

In 124 epistles Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) writes to Lucilius, occasionally about technical problems of philosophy, but more often in a relaxed style about moral and ethical questions, relating them to personal experiences. He thus presents a Stoic philosopher’s thoughts about the good life in a contemporary context.

77.Cover: Epistles, Volume III: Epistles 93-124

Epistles, Volume III: Epistles 93-124

Seneca
Gummere, Richard M.

In 124 epistles Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) writes to Lucilius, occasionally about technical problems of philosophy, but more often in a relaxed style about moral and ethical questions, relating them to personal experiences. He thus presents a Stoic philosopher’s thoughts about the good life in a contemporary context.

78.Cover: Tragedies, Volume II: Oedipus. Agamemnon. Thyestes. Hercules on Oeta. Octavia

Tragedies, Volume II: Oedipus. Agamemnon. Thyestes. Hercules on Oeta. Octavia

Seneca
Fitch, John G.

Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) authored verse tragedies that strongly influenced Shakespeare and other Renaissance dramatists. Plots are based on myth, in keeping with classical tradition, but themes reflect imperial Roman politics. Powerful rhetoric conveys intensity and the perspective is much bleaker than in Seneca’s prose writings.

79.Cover: Enquiry into Plants, Volume II: Books 6-9. On Odours. Weather Signs

Enquiry into Plants, Volume II: Books 6-9. On Odours. Weather Signs

Theophrastus
Hort, Arthur F.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370–c. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle’s zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the former, Theophrastus classifies and describes varieties—covering trees, plants of particular regions, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and cereals; in the last of the nine books he focuses on plant juices and medicinal properties of herbs. His On Odours and Weather Signs are minor treatises.

80.Cover: Lives, Volume IV: Alcibiades and Coriolanus. Lysander and Sulla

Lives, Volume IV: Alcibiades and Coriolanus. Lysander and Sulla

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

81.Cover: History of the Wars, Volume II: Books 3-4. (Vandalic War)

History of the Wars, Volume II: Books 3-4. (Vandalic War)

Procopius
Dewing, H. B.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire’s enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

82.Cover: Roman History, Volume V: Books 46-50

Roman History, Volume V: Books 46-50

Dio Cassius
Cary, Earnest
Foster, Herbert B.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150–235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio’s work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

83.Cover: Roman History, Volume VI: Books 51-55

Roman History, Volume VI: Books 51-55

Dio Cassius
Cary, Earnest
Foster, Herbert B.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150–235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio’s work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

84.Cover: The Greek Anthology, Volume III: Book 9: The Declamatory Epigrams

The Greek Anthology, Volume III: Book 9: The Declamatory Epigrams

Paton, W. R.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is the name given to a collection over many centuries of about 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but usually not epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

85.Cover: The Greek Anthology, Volume IV: Book 10: The Hortatory and Admonitory Epigrams. Book 11: The Convivial and Satirical Epigrams. Book 12: Strato's Musa Puerilis

The Greek Anthology, Volume IV: Book 10: The Hortatory and Admonitory Epigrams. Book 11: The Convivial and Satirical Epigrams. Book 12: Strato's Musa Puerilis

Paton, W. R.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is the name given to a collection over many centuries of about 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but usually not epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

86.Cover: The Greek Anthology, Volume V: Book 13: Epigrams in Various Metres. Book 14: Arithmetical Problems, Riddles, Oracles. Book 15: Miscellanea. Book 16: Epigrams of the Planudean Anthology Not in the Palatine Manuscript

The Greek Anthology, Volume V: Book 13: Epigrams in Various Metres. Book 14: Arithmetical Problems, Riddles, Oracles. Book 15: Miscellanea. Book 16: Epigrams of the Planudean Anthology Not in the Palatine Manuscript

Paton, W. R.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is the name given to a collection over many centuries of about 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but usually not epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

87.Cover: Lives, Volume V: Agesilaus and Pompey. Pelopidas and Marcellus

Lives, Volume V: Agesilaus and Pompey. Pelopidas and Marcellus

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

88.Cover: Hellenica, Volume I: Books 1-4

Hellenica, Volume I: Books 1-4

Xenophon
Brownson, Carleton L.

Hellenica by Xenophon (c. 430–c. 354 BCE) is a history of Greek affairs from 411–362 BCE that begins as a continuation of Thucydides’s account.

89.Cover: Hellenica, Volume II: Books 5-7

Hellenica, Volume II: Books 5-7

Xenophon
Brownson, Carleton L.

Hellenica by Xenophon (c. 430–c. 354 BCE) is a history of Greek affairs from 411–362 BCE that begins as a continuation of Thucydides’s account.

90.Cover: Anabasis

Anabasis

Xenophon
Brownson, Carleton L.

The Anabasis by Xenophon (c. 430–c. 354 BCE) is an eyewitness account of Greek mercenaries’ challenging “March Up-Country” from Babylon back to the coast of Asia Minor under Xenophon’s guidance in 401 BCE, after their leader Cyrus the Younger fell in a failed campaign against his brother.

91.Cover: Juvenal and Persius

Juvenal and Persius

Juvenal
Persius
Braund, Susanna Morton

Bite and wit characterize two seminal and stellar authors in the history of satirical writing, Persius (34–62 CE) and Juvenal (writing about sixty years later). The latter especially had a lasting influence on English writers of the Renaissance and succeeding centuries.

92.Cover: The Exhortation to the Greeks. The Rich Man's Salvation. To the Newly Baptized

The Exhortation to the Greeks. The Rich Man's Salvation. To the Newly Baptized

Clement of Alexandria
Butterworth, G. W.

Born probably 150 CE in Athens, Clement was a key figure in early Christianity with wide knowledge of Greek literature and culture. His Exhortation to the Greeks to give up their gods and turn to Christ shows familiarity with the mystery cults. The Rich Man’s Salvation is a homily that offers a glimpse of Clement’s public teaching.

93.Cover: Description of Greece, Volume I: Books 1-2 (Attica and Corinth)

Description of Greece, Volume I: Books 1-2 (Attica and Corinth)

Pausanias
Jones, W. H. S.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world’s great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

94.Cover: Epigrams, Volume I: Spectacles, Books 1-5

Epigrams, Volume I: Spectacles, Books 1-5

Martial
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In his epigrams, Martial (c. 40–c. 103 CE) is a keen, sharp-tongued observer of Roman scenes and events, including the new Colosseum, country life, a debauchee’s banquet, and the eruption of Vesuvius. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

95.Cover: Epigrams, Volume II: Books 6-10

Epigrams, Volume II: Books 6-10

Martial
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In his epigrams, Martial (c. 40–c. 103 CE) is a keen, sharp-tongued observer of Roman scenes and events, including the new Colosseum, country life, a debauchee’s banquet, and the eruption of Vesuvius. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

96.Cover: Volume I: Books 1-17

Volume I: Books 1-17

Ausonius
Evelyn-White, Hugh G.

The surviving works of Ausonius (c. 310–c. 395 CE) include much poetry, notably The Daily Round and The Moselle. There is also an address of thanks to Gratian for the consulship. The stated aim of Eucharisticus by Paulinus Pellaeus (376–after 459 CE) is to give thanks for the guidance of providence in its author’s life.

97.Cover: Letters to Atticus, Volume III

Letters to Atticus, Volume III

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106–43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

98.Cover: Lives, Volume VI: Dion and Brutus. Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus

Lives, Volume VI: Dion and Brutus. Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

99.Cover: Lives, Volume VII: Demosthenes and Cicero. Alexander and Caesar

Lives, Volume VII: Demosthenes and Cicero. Alexander and Caesar

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

100.Cover: Lives, Volume VIII: Sertorius and Eumenes. Phocion and Cato the Younger

Lives, Volume VIII: Sertorius and Eumenes. Phocion and Cato the Younger

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

101.Cover: Lives, Volume IX: Demetrius and Antony. Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius

Lives, Volume IX: Demetrius and Antony. Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

102.Cover: Lives, Volume X: Agis and Cleomenes. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. Philopoemen and Flamininus

Lives, Volume X: Agis and Cleomenes. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. Philopoemen and Flamininus

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

103.Cover: Lives, Volume XI: Aratus. Artaxerxes. Galba. Otho. General Index

Lives, Volume XI: Aratus. Artaxerxes. Galba. Otho. General Index

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

104.Cover: Odyssey, Volume I: Books 1-12

Odyssey, Volume I: Books 1-12

Homer
Murray, A. T.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The latter tells of Odysseus’s journey home from the Trojan War and the temptations, delays, and dangers he faced at every turn.

105.Cover: Odyssey, Volume II: Books 13-24

Odyssey, Volume II: Books 13-24

Homer
Murray, A. T.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The latter tells of Odysseus’s journey home from the Trojan War and the temptations, delays, and dangers he faced at every turn.

106.Cover: Speeches

Speeches

Aeschines
Adams, C. D.

As examples of Greek oratory the speeches of Aeschines (390 or 389–314 BCE) rank next to those of Demosthenes, and are important documents for the study of Athenian diplomacy and inner politics. Aeschines’s powerful speeches include Against Timarchus, On the False Embassy, and Against Ctesiphon.

107.Cover: History of the Wars, Volume III: Books 5-6.15. (Gothic War)

History of the Wars, Volume III: Books 5-6.15. (Gothic War)

Procopius
Dewing, H. B.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire’s enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

108.Cover: History of the Peloponnesian War, Volume I: Books 1-2

History of the Peloponnesian War, Volume I: Books 1-2

Thucydides
Smith, C. F.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431–421, 415–413, and 413–404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

109.Cover: History of the Peloponnesian War, Volume II: Books 3-4

History of the Peloponnesian War, Volume II: Books 3-4

Thucydides
Smith, C. F.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431–421, 415–413, and 413–404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

110.Cover: History of the Peloponnesian War, Volume III: Books 5-6

History of the Peloponnesian War, Volume III: Books 5-6

Thucydides
Smith, C. F.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431–421, 415–413, and 413–404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

111.Cover: Histories: Books 1-3

Histories: Books 1-3

Tacitus
Moore, Clifford H.

Tacitus (c. 55–c. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69–70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14–28, 31–37, and, partially, 47–66.

112.Cover: Correspondence, Volume I

Correspondence, Volume I

Fronto
Haines, C. R.

Fronto (c. 100–176 CE), a much admired orator and rhetorician, was befriended by the emperor Antoninus Pius and taught his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the second century.

113.Cover: Correspondence, Volume II

Correspondence, Volume II

Fronto
Haines, C. R.

Fronto (c. 100–176 CE), a much admired orator and rhetorician, was befriended by the emperor Antoninus Pius and teacher of his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the 2nd century.

114.Cover: History of Rome, Volume I: Books 1-2

History of Rome, Volume I: Books 1-2

Livy
Foster, B. O.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

115.Cover: Volume II: Books 18-20. Paulinus Pellaeus: Eucharisticus

Volume II: Books 18-20. Paulinus Pellaeus: Eucharisticus

Ausonius
Evelyn-White, Hugh G.
Paulinus Pellaeus

The surviving works of Ausonius (c. 310–c. 395 CE) include much poetry, notably The Daily Round and The Moselle. There is also an address of thanks to Gratian for the consulship. The stated aim of Eucharisticus by Paulinus Pellaeus (376–after 459 CE) is to give thanks for the guidance of providence in its author’s life.

116.Cover: The War with Catiline. The War with Jugurtha

The War with Catiline. The War with Jugurtha

Sallust
Rolfe, J. C.

Sallust’s two extant monographs take as their theme the moral and political decline of Rome, one on the conspiracy of Catiline and the other on the war with Jugurtha. Although Sallust is decidedly unsubtle and partisan in analyzing people and events, his works are important and significantly influenced later historians, notably Tacitus.

117.Cover: The Persian Wars, Volume I: Books 1-2

The Persian Wars, Volume I: Books 1-2

Herodotus
Godley, A. D.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

118.Cover: The Persian Wars, Volume II: Books 3-4

The Persian Wars, Volume II: Books 3-4

Herodotus
Godley, A. D.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

119.Cover: The Persian Wars, Volume III: Books 5-7

The Persian Wars, Volume III: Books 5-7

Herodotus
Godley, A. D.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

120.Cover: The Persian Wars, Volume IV: Books 8-9

The Persian Wars, Volume IV: Books 8-9

Herodotus
Godley, A. D.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

121.Cover: The Library, Volume I: Books 1-3.9

The Library, Volume I: Books 1-3.9

Apollodorus
Frazer, James G.

Attributed to Apollodorus of Athens (born c. 180 BCE), but probably composed in the first or second century BCE, The Library provides a grand summary of Greek myths and heroic legends about the origin and early history of the world and of the Hellenic people.

122.Cover: The Library, Volume II: Book 3.10-end. Epitome

The Library, Volume II: Book 3.10-end. Epitome

Apollodorus
Frazer, James G.

Attributed to Apollodorus of Athens (born c. 180 BCE), but probably composed in the first or second century BCE, The Library provides a grand summary of Greek myths and heroic legends about the origin and early history of the world and of the Hellenic people.

123.Cover: Theaetetus. Sophist

Theaetetus. Sophist

Plato
Fowler, Harold North

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

124.Cover: The Orator's Education, Volume I: Books 1-2

The Orator's Education, Volume I: Books 1-2

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator’s Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

125.Cover: The Orator's Education, Volume II: Books 3-5

The Orator's Education, Volume II: Books 3-5

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator’s Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

126.Cover: The Orator's Education, Volume III: Books 6-8

The Orator's Education, Volume III: Books 6-8

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator’s Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

127.Cover: The Orator's Education, Volume IV: Books 9-10

The Orator's Education, Volume IV: Books 9-10

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator’s Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

128.Cover: The Histories, Volume I: Books 1-2

The Histories, Volume I: Books 1-2

Polybius
Paton, W. R.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200–118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

129.Cover: Hymns and Epigrams. Lycophron: Alexandra. Aratus: Phaenomena

Hymns and Epigrams. Lycophron: Alexandra. Aratus: Phaenomena

Callimachus
Lycophron
Aratus
Mair, A. W.
Mair, G. R.

Callimachus (third century BCE) authored hymns and epigrams. The monodrama Alexandra is attributed to his contemporary, Lycophron. Phaenomena, a poem on star constellations and weather signs by Aratus (c. 315–245 BCE), was among the most widely read in antiquity and one of the few Greek poems translated into Arabic.

130.Cover: The Dead Come to Life or The Fisherman. The Double Indictment or Trials by Jury. On Sacrifices. The Ignorant Book Collector. The Dream or Lucian's Career. The Parasite. The Lover of Lies. The Judgement of the Goddesses. On Salaried Posts in Great Houses

The Dead Come to Life or The Fisherman. The Double Indictment or Trials by Jury. On Sacrifices. The Ignorant Book Collector. The Dream or Lucian's Career. The Parasite. The Lover of Lies. The Judgement of the Goddesses. On Salaried Posts in Great Houses

Lucian
Harmon, A. M.

Lucian (c. 120–190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

131.Cover: Discourses, Books 1-2

Discourses, Books 1-2

Epictetus
Oldfather, W. A.

Unlike his predecessors, Epictetus (c. 50–120 CE), who grew up as a slave, taught Stoicism not for the select few but for the many. A student, the historian Arrian, recorded Epictetus’s lectures and, in the Encheiridion, a handbook, summarized his thought.

132.Cover: Aspis. Georgos. Dis Exapaton. Dyskolos. Encheiridion. Epitrepontes

Aspis. Georgos. Dis Exapaton. Dyskolos. Encheiridion. Epitrepontes

Menander
Arnott, W. G.

Menander (?344/3–292/1 BCE), the dominant figure in New Comedy, wrote over 100 plays, of which one complete play, substantial portions of six others, and smaller but interesting fragments have been recovered. The complete play, Dyskolos (The Peevish Fellow), won first prize in Athens in 317 BCE.

133.Cover: History of Rome, Volume II: Books 3-4

History of Rome, Volume II: Books 3-4

Livy
Foster, B. O.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

134.Cover: Lives of the Sophists. Eunapius: Lives of the Philosophers and Sophists

Lives of the Sophists. Eunapius: Lives of the Philosophers and Sophists

Philostratus
Eunapius
Wright, Wilmer C.

In Lives of the Sophists, Philostratus (second to third century CE) depicts the widespread influence of Sophistic in the second and third centuries CE. Lives of Philosophers and Sophists by Eunapius (born 347 CE) is our only source concerning Neo-Platonism in the latter part of the fourth century CE.

135.Cover: Panegyric on Probinus and Olybrius. Against Rufinus 1 and 2. War against Gildo. Against Eutropius 1 and 2. Fescennine Verses on the Marriage of Honorius. Epithalamium  of Honorius and Maria. Panegyrics on the Third and Fourth Consulships of Honorius. Pane

Panegyric on Probinus and Olybrius. Against Rufinus 1 and 2. War against Gildo. Against Eutropius 1 and 2. Fescennine Verses on the Marriage of Honorius. Epithalamium of Honorius and Maria. Panegyrics on the Third and Fourth Consulships of Honorius. Pane

Claudian
Platnauer, M.

Claudius Claudianus (c. 370–c. 410 CE) gives us important knowledge of Honorius’s time and displays poetic as well as rhetorical skill, command of language, and diversity. A panegyric on the brothers Probinus and Olybrius (consuls together in 395 CE) was followed mostly by epics in hexameters, but also by elegiacs, epistles, epigrams, and idylls.

136.Cover: On Stilicho's Consulship 2-3. Panegyric on the Sixth Consulship of Honorius. The Gothic War. Shorter Poems. Rape of Proserpina

On Stilicho's Consulship 2-3. Panegyric on the Sixth Consulship of Honorius. The Gothic War. Shorter Poems. Rape of Proserpina

Claudian
Platnauer, M.

Claudius Claudianus (c. 370–c. 410 CE) gives us important knowledge of Honorius’s time and displays poetic as well as rhetorical skill, command of language, and diversity. A panegyric on the brothers Probinus and Olybrius (consuls together in 395 CE) was followed mostly by epics in hexameters, but also by elegiacs, epistles, epigrams, and idylls.

137.Cover: The Histories, Volume II: Books 3-4

The Histories, Volume II: Books 3-4

Polybius
Paton, W. R.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200–118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

138.Cover: The Histories, Volume III: Books 5-8

The Histories, Volume III: Books 5-8

Polybius
Paton, W. R.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200–118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

139.Cover: Historia Augusta, Volume I: Hadrian. Aelius. Antoninus Pius. Marcus Aurelius. L. Verus. Avidius Cassius. Commodus. Pertinax. Didius Julianus. Septimius Severus. Pescennius Niger. Clodius Albinus

Historia Augusta, Volume I: Hadrian. Aelius. Antoninus Pius. Marcus Aurelius. L. Verus. Avidius Cassius. Commodus. Pertinax. Didius Julianus. Septimius Severus. Pescennius Niger. Clodius Albinus

Magie, David

The Historia Augusta (or Scriptores Historiae Augustae) is a series of biographies of Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants from Hadrian to Numerianus (117–284 CE) modeled on Suetonius’s Lives of the Caesars (second century CE). Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author.

140.Cover: Historia Augusta, Volume II: Caracalla. Geta. Opellius Macrinus. Diadumenianus. Elagabalus. Severus Alexander. The Two Maximini. The Three Gordians. Maximus and Balbinus

Historia Augusta, Volume II: Caracalla. Geta. Opellius Macrinus. Diadumenianus. Elagabalus. Severus Alexander. The Two Maximini. The Three Gordians. Maximus and Balbinus

Magie, David

The Historia Augusta (or Scriptores Historiae Augustae) is a series of biographies of Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants from Hadrian to Numerianus (117–284 CE) modeled on Suetonius’s Lives of the Caesars (second century CE). Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author.

141.Cover: Tusculan Disputations

Tusculan Disputations

Cicero
King, J. E.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

142.Cover: Greek Lyric, Volume I: Sappho and Alcaeus

Greek Lyric, Volume I: Sappho and Alcaeus

Campbell, David A.
Sappho
Alcaeus

Sappho, the most famous woman poet of antiquity, whose main theme was love, and Alcaeus, poet of wine, war, and politics, were two illustrious singers of sixth-century BCE Lesbos.

143.Cover: Greek Lyric, Volume II: Anacreon, Anacreontea, Choral Lyric from Olympus to Alcman

Greek Lyric, Volume II: Anacreon, Anacreontea, Choral Lyric from Olympus to Alcman

Campbell, David A.
Anacreon

Anacreon (c. 570–485 BCE) was a composer of solo song. The Anacreonta were composed over several centuries. Notable among the earliest writers of choral poetry are the seventh-century BCE Spartans Alcman and Terpander.

144.Cover: Greek Lyric, Volume V: The New School of Poetry and Anonymous Songs and Hymns

Greek Lyric, Volume V: The New School of Poetry and Anonymous Songs and Hymns

Campbell, David A.

Dithyrambic poets of the new school were active from the mid-fifth to mid-fourth century BCE. Anonymous poems include drinking songs, children’s ditties, and cult hymns.

145.Cover: Persians. Seven against Thebes. Suppliants. Prometheus Bound

Persians. Seven against Thebes. Suppliants. Prometheus Bound

Aeschylus
Sommerstein, Alan H.

Aeschylus (c. 525–456 BCE) is the dramatist who made Athenian tragedy one of the world’s great art forms. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians, the only extant Greek historical drama. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

146.Cover: Oresteia: Agamemnon. Libation-Bearers. Eumenides

Oresteia: Agamemnon. Libation-Bearers. Eumenides

Aeschylus
Sommerstein, Alan H.

Aeschylus (c. 525–456 BCE) is the dramatist who made Athenian tragedy one of the world’s great art forms. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians, the only extant Greek historical drama. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

147.Cover: Ancient Medicine. Airs, Waters, Places. Epidemics 1 and 3. The Oath. Precepts. Nutriment

Ancient Medicine. Airs, Waters, Places. Epidemics 1 and 3. The Oath. Precepts. Nutriment

Hippocrates
Jones, W. H. S.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the “Father of Medicine.”

148.Cover: Prognostic. Regimen in Acute Diseases. The Sacred Disease. The Art. Breaths. Law. Decorum. Physician (Ch. 1). Dentition

Prognostic. Regimen in Acute Diseases. The Sacred Disease. The Art. Breaths. Law. Decorum. Physician (Ch. 1). Dentition

Hippocrates
Jones, W. H. S.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the “Father of Medicine.”

149.Cover: On Wounds in the Head. In the Surgery. On Fractures. On Joints. Mochlicon

On Wounds in the Head. In the Surgery. On Fractures. On Joints. Mochlicon

Hippocrates
Withington, E. T.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the “Father of Medicine.”

150.Cover: Nature of Man. Regimen in Health. Humours. Aphorisms. Regimen 1-3. Dreams. Heracleitus: On the Universe

Nature of Man. Regimen in Health. Humours. Aphorisms. Regimen 1-3. Dreams. Heracleitus: On the Universe

Hippocrates
Jones, W. H. S.
Heracleitus

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the “Father of Medicine.”

151.Cover: Tristia. Ex Ponto

Tristia. Ex Ponto

Ovid
Wheeler, A. L.

In the melancholy elegies of the Tristia and the Ex Ponto, Ovid (43 BCE–17 CE) writes from exile in Tomis on the Black Sea, appealing to such people as his wife and the emperor.

152.Cover: Compendium of Roman History. Res Gestae Divi Augusti

Compendium of Roman History. Res Gestae Divi Augusti

Velleius Paterculus
Shipley, Frederick W.

Velleius Paterculus lived in the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius (30 BCE–37 CE) and wrote a summary of Roman history from the fall of Troy to 29 CE. In 13–14 CE, Emperor Augustus wrote an account of his public life, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, the best preserved copy of which was engraved on the walls of his temple at Ancyra (Ankara).

153.Cover: Ecclesiastical History, Volume I: Books 1-5

Ecclesiastical History, Volume I: Books 1-5

Eusebius
Lake, Kirsopp

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea from about 315 CE, was the most important writer in the age of Constantine. His history of the Christian church from the ministry of Jesus to 324 CE is a treasury of information, especially on the Eastern centers.

154.Cover: On Old Age. On Friendship. On Divination

On Old Age. On Friendship. On Divination

Cicero
Falconer, W. A.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

155.Cover: Orations, Volume II: Orations 18-19: De Corona, De Falsa Legatione

Orations, Volume II: Orations 18-19: De Corona, De Falsa Legatione

Demosthenes
Vince, C. A.
Vince, J. H.

Demosthenes (384–322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who later became also a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and severe control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

156.Cover: Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus, and Onasander

Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus, and Onasander

Aeneas Tacticus
Asclepiodotus
Onasander
Illinois Greek Club

The surviving work of Aeneas (fourth century BCE) is on defense against siege. Asclepiodotus (first century BCE) wrote a work on Tactics as though for the lecture room, based on earlier manuals, not personal experience. Onasander’s The General (first century CE) deals with the qualities expected of a general.

157.Cover: Letters. Epigrams. Against the Galilaeans. Fragments

Letters. Epigrams. Against the Galilaeans. Fragments

Julian
Wright, Wilmer C.

The surviving works of the Roman Emperor Julian “the Apostate” (331 or 332–363 CE) include eight Orations; Misopogon (Beard-Hater), assailing the morals of the people of Antioch; more than eighty Letters; and fragments of Against the Galileans, written mainly to show that the Old Testament lacks evidence for the idea of Christianity.

158.Cover: Pro Archia. Post Reditum in Senatu. Post Reditum ad Quirites. De Domo Sua. De Haruspicum Responsis. Pro Plancio

Pro Archia. Post Reditum in Senatu. Post Reditum ad Quirites. De Domo Sua. De Haruspicum Responsis. Pro Plancio

Cicero
Watts, N. H.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

159.Cover: The Histories, Volume IV: Books 9-15

The Histories, Volume IV: Books 9-15

Polybius
Paton, W. R.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200–118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

160.Cover: The Histories, Volume V: Books 16-27

The Histories, Volume V: Books 16-27

Polybius
Paton, W. R.

Polybius’s theme is how and why the Romans spread their power as they did. The main part of his history covers the years 264–146 BC, describing the rise of Rome, the destruction of Carthage, and the eventual domination of the Greek world. It is a vital achievement despite the incomplete survival of all but the first five of forty books.

161.Cover: The Histories, Volume VI: Books 28-39. Fragments

The Histories, Volume VI: Books 28-39. Fragments

Polybius
Paton, W. R.
Olson, S. Douglas

For this six-volume edition of The Histories, W. R. Paton’s 1922 translation has been thoroughly revised, the Büttner-Wobst Greek text corrected, and explanatory notes and a new introduction added. All but the first five of forty volumes survive in an incomplete state. Volume VI includes fragments unattributed to particular books of The Histories.

162.Cover: Anacharsis or Athletics. Menippus or The Descent into Hades. On Funerals. A Professor of Public Speaking. Alexander the False Prophet. Essays in Portraiture. Essays in Portraiture Defended. The Goddesse of Surrye

Anacharsis or Athletics. Menippus or The Descent into Hades. On Funerals. A Professor of Public Speaking. Alexander the False Prophet. Essays in Portraiture. Essays in Portraiture Defended. The Goddesse of Surrye

Lucian
Harmon, A. M.

Lucian (c. 120–190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

163.Cover: The Merchant. The Braggart Soldier. The Ghost. The Persian

The Merchant. The Braggart Soldier. The Ghost. The Persian

Plautus
de Melo, Wolfgang

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205–184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

164.Cover: Statesman. Philebus. Ion

Statesman. Philebus. Ion

Plato
Fowler, Harold North
Lamb, W. R. M.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

165.Cover: Laches. Protagoras. Meno. Euthydemus

Laches. Protagoras. Meno. Euthydemus

Plato
Lamb, W. R. M.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

166.Cover: Lysis. Symposium. Gorgias

Lysis. Symposium. Gorgias

Plato
Lamb, W. R. M.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

167.Cover: Cratylus. Parmenides. Greater Hippias. Lesser Hippias

Cratylus. Parmenides. Greater Hippias. Lesser Hippias

Plato
Fowler, Harold North

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

168.Cover: Memorabilia. Oeconomicus. Symposium. Apology

Memorabilia. Oeconomicus. Symposium. Apology

Xenophon
Marchant, E. C.
Todd, O. J.

In Memorabilia and in Oeconomicus, a dialogue about household management, we see the philosopher Socrates through the eyes of his associate, Xenophon. In the Symposium, we obtain insight on life in Athens. Xenophon’s Apology is an interesting complement to Plato’s account of Socrates’s defense at his trial.

169.Cover: History of the Peloponnesian War, Volume IV: Books 7-8. General Index

History of the Peloponnesian War, Volume IV: Books 7-8. General Index

Thucydides
Smith, C. F.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431–421, 415–413, and 413–404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

170.Cover: Iliad, Volume I: Books 1-12

Iliad, Volume I: Books 1-12

Homer
Murray, A. T.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The former tells of Achilles’s anger over an insult to his honour during the Trojan War, and of its consequences for the Achaeans, the Trojans, and Achilles himself.

171.Cover: Iliad, Volume II: Books 13-24

Iliad, Volume II: Books 13-24

Homer
Murray, A. T.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The former tells of Achilles’s anger over an insult to his honour during the Trojan War, and of its consequences for the Achaeans, the Trojans, and Achilles himself.

172.Cover: History of Rome, Volume III: Books 5-7

History of Rome, Volume III: Books 5-7

Livy
Foster, B. O.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

173.Cover: History of the Wars, Volume IV: Books 6.16-7.35. (Gothic War)

History of the Wars, Volume IV: Books 6.16-7.35. (Gothic War)

Procopius
Dewing, H. B.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire’s enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

174.Cover: Stratagems. Aqueducts of Rome

Stratagems. Aqueducts of Rome

Frontinus
Bennett, C. E.
McElwain, Mary B.

Frontinus’s Stratagems, written after 84 CE, gives examples of military stratagems and discipline from Greek and Roman history, for the instruction of Roman officers. The Aqueducts of Rome, written in 97–98, gives some historical details and a description of the aqueducts for the water supply of the city, with laws relating to them.

175.Cover: Roman History, Volume VII: Books 56-60

Roman History, Volume VII: Books 56-60

Dio Cassius
Cary, Earnest
Foster, Herbert B.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150–235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio’s work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

176.Cover: Roman History, Volume VIII: Books 61-70

Roman History, Volume VIII: Books 61-70

Dio Cassius
Cary, Earnest
Foster, Herbert B.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150–235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio’s work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

177.Cover: Roman History, Volume IX: Books 71-80

Roman History, Volume IX: Books 71-80

Dio Cassius
Cary, Earnest
Foster, Herbert B.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150–235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio’s work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

178.Cover: Acharnians. Knights

Acharnians. Knights

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450–c. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. In Acharnians a small landowner, tired of the Peloponnesian War, magically arranges a personal peace treaty; Knights is perhaps the most biting satire of a political figure (Cleon) ever written.

179.Cover: Birds. Lysistrata. Women at the Thesmophoria

Birds. Lysistrata. Women at the Thesmophoria

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450–c. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. The protagonists of Birds create a utopian counter-Athens. In Lysistrata wives go on conjugal strike until their husbands end war. Women in Women at the Thesmophoria punish Euripides for portraying them as wicked.

180.Cover: Frogs. Assemblywomen. Wealth

Frogs. Assemblywomen. Wealth

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450–c. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. Traditional Aeschylus and modern Euripides compete in Frogs. In Assemblywomen, Athenian women plot against male misgovernance. The humor and morality of Wealth made it the most popular of Aristophanes’ plays until the Renaissance.

181.Cover: On the Nature of Things

On the Nature of Things

Lucretius
Rouse, W. H. D.

Lucretius lived ca. 99–ca. 55 BCE, but the details of his career are unknown. In his didactic poem De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things) he expounds Epicurean philosophy so as to dispel fear of the gods and death, and promote spiritual tranquility.

182.Cover: Geography, Volume III: Books 6-7

Geography, Volume III: Books 6-7

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE–c. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

183.Cover: Hiero. Agesilaus. Constitution of the Lacedaemonians. Ways and Means. Cavalry Commander. Art of Horsemanship. On Hunting. Constitution of the Athenians

Hiero. Agesilaus. Constitution of the Lacedaemonians. Ways and Means. Cavalry Commander. Art of Horsemanship. On Hunting. Constitution of the Athenians

Xenophon
Marchant, E. C.
Bowersock, G. W.

Minor works by Xenophon (c. 430–c. 354 BCE) include Hiero, a dialogue on government; Agesilaus, in praise of that king; Constitution of Lacedaemon, on the Spartan system; Ways and Means, on the finances of Athens; and a manual of Horsemanship. The Constitution of the Athenians, though not by Xenophon, is an interesting document on Athenian politics.

184.Cover: Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Volume I: Books 1-5

Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Volume I: Books 1-5

Diogenes Laertius
Hicks, R. D.

Diogenes Laertius (probably early third century BCE) compiled his compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from hundreds of sources. It ranges over three centuries, from Thales to Epicurus, portraying 45 important figures, and is enriched by numerous quotations.

185.Cover: Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Volume II: Books 6-10

Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Volume II: Books 6-10

Diogenes Laertius
Hicks, R. D.

Diogenes Laertius (probably early third century BCE) compiled his compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from hundreds of sources. It ranges over three centuries, from Thales to Epicurus, portraying 45 important figures, and is enriched by numerous quotations.

186.Cover: The Life. Against Apion

The Life. Against Apion

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

187.Cover: Laws, Volume I: Books 1-6

Laws, Volume I: Books 1-6

Plato
Bury, R. G.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

188.Cover: Description of Greece, Volume II: Books 3-5  (Laconia, Messenia, Elis 1)

Description of Greece, Volume II: Books 3-5 (Laconia, Messenia, Elis 1)

Pausanias
Jones, W. H. S.
Ormerod, H. A.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world’s great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

189.Cover: Philippics 1-6

Philippics 1-6

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

190.Cover: Letters, Volume I: Letters 1-58

Letters, Volume I: Letters 1-58

Basil
Deferrari, Roy J.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

191.Cover: History of Rome, Volume IV: Books 8-10

History of Rome, Volume IV: Books 8-10

Livy
Foster, B. O.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

192.Cover: Laws, Volume II: Books 7-12

Laws, Volume II: Books 7-12

Plato
Bury, R. G.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

193.Cover: Art of Rhetoric

Art of Rhetoric

Aristotle
Freese, J. H.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

194.Cover: Satires. Epistles. The Art of Poetry

Satires. Epistles. The Art of Poetry

Horace
Fairclough, H. Rushton

The poetry of Horace (born 65 BCE) is richly varied, its focus moving between public and private concerns, urban and rural settings, Stoic and Epicurean thought. In the Satires Horace mocks himself as well as the world. His verse epistles include the Art of Poetry, in which he famously expounds his literary theory.

195.Cover: Attic Nights, Volume I: Books 1-5

Attic Nights, Volume I: Books 1-5

Gellius
Rolfe, J. C.

Aulus Gellius (ca. 123–170 CE) offers in Attic Nights (Gellius began to write these pieces during stays in Athens) a collection of short chapters about notable events, words and questions of literary style, lives of historical figures, legal points, and philosophical issues that served as instructive light reading for cultivated Romans.

196.Cover: Geography, Volume IV: Books 8-9

Geography, Volume IV: Books 8-9

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE–c. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

197.Cover: Moralia, Volume I: The Education of Children. How the Young Man Should Study Poetry. On Listening to Lectures. How to Tell a Flatterer from a Friend. How a Man May Become Aware of His Progress in Virtue

Moralia, Volume I: The Education of Children. How the Young Man Should Study Poetry. On Listening to Lectures. How to Tell a Flatterer from a Friend. How a Man May Become Aware of His Progress in Virtue

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

198.Cover: Pro Lege Manilia. Pro Caecina. Pro Cluentio. Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo

Pro Lege Manilia. Pro Caecina. Pro Cluentio. Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo

Cicero
Hodge, H. Grose

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

199.Cover: Poetics. Longinus: On the Sublime. Demetrius: On Style

Poetics. Longinus: On the Sublime. Demetrius: On Style

Aristotle
Halliwell, Stephen
Longinus
Fyfe, W. Hamilton
Demetrius
Innes, Doreen C.
Rhys Roberts, W.

In Poetics, Aristotle (384–322 BCE) treats Greek tragedy and epic. The subject of On the Sublime, attributed to an (unidentifiable) Longinus and probably composed in the first century CE, is greatness in writing. On Style, attributed to an (unidentifiable) Demetrius and perhaps composed in the second century BCE, analyzes four literary styles.

200.Cover: Attic Nights, Volume II: Books 6-13

Attic Nights, Volume II: Books 6-13

Gellius
Rolfe, J. C.

Aulus Gellius (ca. 123–170 CE) offers in Attic Nights (Gellius began to write these pieces during stays in Athens) a collection of short chapters about notable events, words and questions of literary style, lives of historical figures, legal points, and philosophical issues that served as instructive light reading for cultivated Romans.

201.Cover: Charmides. Alcibiades I and II. Hipparchus. The Lovers. Theages. Minos. Epinomis

Charmides. Alcibiades I and II. Hipparchus. The Lovers. Theages. Minos. Epinomis

Plato
Lamb, W. R. M.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

202.Cover: Isaeus

Isaeus

Isaeus
Forster, E. S.

Isaeus (c. 420–350 BCE) composed speeches for others. He shares with Lysias pure Attic and lucidity of style, but his more aggressive and flexible presentation undoubtedly influenced Demosthenes. Of at least fifty attributed orations, there survive eleven on legacy cases and a large fragment dealing with a claim of citizenship.

203.Cover: The Jewish War, Volume I: Books 1-2

The Jewish War, Volume I: Books 1-2

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

204.Cover: The Learned Banqueters, Volume I: Books 1-3.106e

The Learned Banqueters, Volume I: Books 1-3.106e

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

205.Cover: Letters to Friends, Volume I: Letters 1-113

Letters to Friends, Volume I: Letters 1-113

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Cicero’s letters to friends span the period from 62 BCE, when his political career was at its peak, to 43 BCE, when he was put to death by the victorious Triumvirs.

206.Cover: Silvae

Silvae

Statius
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius (c. 50–96 CE). His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems. His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid, recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. The extant portion of his Achilleid begins an account of Achilles’s life.

207.Cover: Thebaid, Volume I: Books 1-7

Thebaid, Volume I: Books 1-7

Statius
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius (c. 50–96 CE). His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems. His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid, recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. The extant portion of his Achilleid begins an account of Achilles’s life.

208.Cover: The Learned Banqueters, Volume II: Books 3.106e-5

The Learned Banqueters, Volume II: Books 3.106e-5

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

209.Cover: To Demonicus. To Nicocles. Nicocles or the Cyprians. Panegyricus. To Philip. Archidamus

To Demonicus. To Nicocles. Nicocles or the Cyprians. Panegyricus. To Philip. Archidamus

Isocrates
Norlin, George

The importance of Isocrates (436–338 BCE) for the study of Greek civilization of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive; these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant.

210.Cover: The Jewish War, Volume III: Books 5-7

The Jewish War, Volume III: Books 5-7

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

211.Cover: Geography, Volume V: Books 10-12

Geography, Volume V: Books 10-12

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE–c. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

212.Cover: Attic Nights, Volume III: Books 14-20

Attic Nights, Volume III: Books 14-20

Gellius
Rolfe, J. C.

Aulus Gellius (ca. 123–170 CE) offers in Attic Nights (Gellius began to write these pieces during stays in Athens) a collection of short chapters about notable events, words and questions of literary style, lives of historical figures, legal points, and philosophical issues that served as instructive light reading for cultivated Romans.

213.Cover: On the Republic. On the Laws

On the Republic. On the Laws

Cicero
Keyes, Clinton W.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

214.Cover: Moral Essays, Volume I: De Providentia. De Constantia. De Ira. De Clementia

Moral Essays, Volume I: De Providentia. De Constantia. De Ira. De Clementia

Seneca
Basore, John W.

In Moral Essays, Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) expresses his Stoic philosophy on providence, steadfastness, anger, forgiveness, consolation, the happy life, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, and gift-giving.

215.Cover: Letters, Volume II: Letters 59-185

Letters, Volume II: Letters 59-185

Basil
Deferrari, Roy J.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

216.Cover: Letters to Friends, Volume II: Letters 114-280

Letters to Friends, Volume II: Letters 114-280

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Cicero’s letters to friends span the period from 62 BCE, when his political career was at its peak, to 43 BCE, when he was put to death by the victorious Triumvirs.

217.Cover: History of the Wars, Volume V: Books 7.36-8. (Gothic War)

History of the Wars, Volume V: Books 7.36-8. (Gothic War)

Procopius
Dewing, H. B.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire’s enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

218.Cover: Discourses, Books 3-4. Fragments. The Encheiridion

Discourses, Books 3-4. Fragments. The Encheiridion

Epictetus
Oldfather, W. A.

Unlike his predecessors, Epictetus (c. 50–120 CE), who grew up as a slave, taught Stoicism not for the select few but for the many. A student, the historian Arrian, recorded Epictetus’s lectures and, in the Encheiridion, a handbook, summarized his thought.

219.Cover: Oppian, Colluthus, and Tryphiodorus

Oppian, Colluthus, and Tryphiodorus

Oppian
Colluthus
Tryphiodorus
Mair, A. W.

In Fishing, Oppian of Cilicia, who flourished in the latter half of the second century CE, discusses fish and gives angling instructions. The Chase, on hunting, may be the work of a Syrian imitator. Colluthus and Tryphiodorus (properly “Triphiodorus”), epic poets of Egypt, wrote in the second half of the fifth century CE.

220.Cover: The Civil War (Pharsalia)

The Civil War (Pharsalia)

Lucan
Duff, J. D.

In his epic The Civil War, Lucan (39–65 CE) carries us from Caesar’s fateful crossing of the Rubicon, through the Battle of Pharsalus, Pompey’s death, and Cato’s leadership in Africa, to Caesar victorious in Egypt. The poem is also called Pharsalia.

221.Cover: The Verrine Orations, Volume I: Against Caecilius. Against Verres, Part 1; Part 2, Books 1-2

The Verrine Orations, Volume I: Against Caecilius. Against Verres, Part 1; Part 2, Books 1-2

Cicero
Greenwood, L. H. G.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

222.Cover: Moralia, Volume II: How to Profit by One's Enemies. On Having Many Friends. Chance. Virtue and Vice. Letter of Condolence to Apollonius. Advice About Keeping Well. Advice to Bride and Groom. The Dinner of the Seven Wise Men. Superstition

Moralia, Volume II: How to Profit by One's Enemies. On Having Many Friends. Chance. Virtue and Vice. Letter of Condolence to Apollonius. Advice About Keeping Well. Advice to Bride and Groom. The Dinner of the Seven Wise Men. Superstition

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

223.Cover: Geography, Volume VI: Books 13-14

Geography, Volume VI: Books 13-14

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE–c. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

224.Cover: The Learned Banqueters, Volume III: Books 6-7

The Learned Banqueters, Volume III: Books 6-7

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

225.Cover: Characters. Herodas: Mimes. Sophron and Other Mime Fragments

Characters. Herodas: Mimes. Sophron and Other Mime Fragments

Theophrastus
Herodas
Sophron
Rusten, Jeffrey
Cunningham, I. C.

Fictionalized faults are the focus of Characters by Theophrastus (c. 370–c. 285 BCE). The Hellenistic poet Herodas wrote mimes in which everyday life is portrayed and character—as opposed to plot—depicted. Mimes by Sophron (fifth century BCE) and anonymous mime fragments also represent that genre.

226.Cover: On the Creation. Allegorical Interpretation of Genesis 2 and 3

On the Creation. Allegorical Interpretation of Genesis 2 and 3

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

227.Cover: On the Cherubim. The Sacrifices of Abel and Cain. The Worse Attacks the Better. On the Posterity and Exile of Cain. On the Giants

On the Cherubim. The Sacrifices of Abel and Cain. The Worse Attacks the Better. On the Posterity and Exile of Cain. On the Giants

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

228.Cover: Physics, Volume I: Books 1-4

Physics, Volume I: Books 1-4

Aristotle
Wicksteed, P. H.
Cornford, F. M.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

229.Cover: On the Peace. Areopagiticus. Against the Sophists. Antidosis. Panathenaicus

On the Peace. Areopagiticus. Against the Sophists. Antidosis. Panathenaicus

Isocrates
Norlin, George

The importance of Isocrates (436–338 BCE) for the study of Greek civilization of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive; these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant.

230.Cover: Letters to Friends, Volume III: Letters 281-435

Letters to Friends, Volume III: Letters 281-435

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Cicero’s letters to friends span the period from 62 BCE, when his political career was at its peak, to 43 BCE, when he was put to death by the victorious Triumvirs.

231.Cover: Epitome of Roman History

Epitome of Roman History

Florus
Forster, E. S.

Florus (second century CE) wrote, in brief pointed rhetorical style, a two-book summary of Roman history (especially military) in order to show the greatness and decline of Roman morals. Based chiefly on Livy and perhaps planned to reach Florus’s own times, the extant work ends with Augustus’s reign (30 BCE–14 CE).

232.Cover: Art of Love. Cosmetics. Remedies for Love. Ibis. Walnut-tree. Sea Fishing. Consolation

Art of Love. Cosmetics. Remedies for Love. Ibis. Walnut-tree. Sea Fishing. Consolation

Ovid
Mozley, J. H.

In the didactic poetry of Medicamina Faciei Femineae (Face Cosmetics), Ars Amatoria (Art of Love), and Remedia Amoris (Remedies for Love), Ovid (43 BCE–17 CE) demonstrates abstrusity and wit. His Ibis is an elegiac curse-poem. Nux (Walnut-tree), Halieutica (Sea-Fishing), and Consolatio ad Liviam (Poem of Consolation) are poems now judged not to be by Ovid.

233.Cover: History of Rome, Volume V: Books 21-22

History of Rome, Volume V: Books 21-22

Livy
Foster, B. O.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

234.Cover: Timaeus. Critias. Cleitophon. Menexenus. Epistles

Timaeus. Critias. Cleitophon. Menexenus. Epistles

Plato
Bury, R. G.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

235.Cover: The Learned Banqueters, Volume IV: Books 8-10.420e

The Learned Banqueters, Volume IV: Books 8-10.420e

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

236.Cover: Anabasis of Alexander, Volume I: Books 1-4

Anabasis of Alexander, Volume I: Books 1-4

Arrian
Brunt, P. A.

The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian (ca. 95–175 BCE) is the best extant account of Alexander the Great’s adult life. A description of India, and of Nearchus’ voyage thence, was to be a supplement.

237.Cover: Republic, Volume I: Books 1-5

Republic, Volume I: Books 1-5

Plato
Emlyn-Jones, Christopher
Preddy, William

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

238.Cover: Orations, Volume I: Orations 1-17 and 20: Olynthiacs 1-3. Philippic 1. On the Peace. Philippic 2. On Halonnesus. On the Chersonese. Philippics 3 and 4. Answer to Philip's Letter. Philip's Letter. On Organization. On the Navy-boards. For the Liberty of the Rhodians. For the P

Orations, Volume I: Orations 1-17 and 20: Olynthiacs 1-3. Philippic 1. On the Peace. Philippic 2. On Halonnesus. On the Chersonese. Philippics 3 and 4. Answer to Philip's Letter. Philip's Letter. On Organization. On the Navy-boards. For the Liberty of the Rhodians. For the P

Demosthenes
Vince, J. H.

Demosthenes (384–322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who later became also a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and severe control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

239.Cover: Select Letters

Select Letters

Augustine
Baxter, James Houston

The Letters of Augustine (354–430 CE) are important for the study of ecclesiastical history and Augustine’s relations with other theologians.

240.Cover: Pro Quinctio. Pro Roscio Amerino. Pro Roscio Comoedo. On the Agrarian Law

Pro Quinctio. Pro Roscio Amerino. Pro Roscio Comoedo. On the Agrarian Law

Cicero
Freese, J. H.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

241.Cover: Geography, Volume VII: Books 15-16

Geography, Volume VII: Books 15-16

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE–c. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

242.Cover: Jewish Antiquities, Volume I: Books 1-3

Jewish Antiquities, Volume I: Books 1-3

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

243.Cover: Letters, Volume III: Letters 186-248

Letters, Volume III: Letters 186-248

Basil
Deferrari, Roy J.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

244.Cover: Lysias

Lysias

Lysias
Lamb, W. R. M.

Lysias (c. 458–c. 380 BCE) took the side of democracy against the Thirty Tyrants in 404 BCE. Of a much larger number about thirty complete speeches by him survive. Fluent, simple, and graceful in style yet vivid in description, they suggest a passionate partisan who was also a gentle, humorous man.

245.Cover: Moralia, Volume III: Sayings of Kings and Commanders. Sayings of Romans. Sayings of Spartans. The Ancient Customs of the Spartans. Sayings of Spartan Women. Bravery of Women

Moralia, Volume III: Sayings of Kings and Commanders. Sayings of Romans. Sayings of Spartans. The Ancient Customs of the Spartans. Sayings of Spartan Women. Bravery of Women

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

246.Cover: Ecclesiastical History, Volume I: Books 1-3

Ecclesiastical History, Volume I: Books 1-3

Bede
King, J. E.

Historical works by Bede (672 or 673–735 CE) include his Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Lives of the Abbots of Bede’s monastery, accounts of Cuthbert, and the Letter to Egbert, Bede’s pupil.

247.Cover: On the Unchangeableness of God. On Husbandry. Concerning Noah's Work As a Planter. On Drunkenness. On Sobriety

On the Unchangeableness of God. On Husbandry. Concerning Noah's Work As a Planter. On Drunkenness. On Sobriety

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

248.Cover: Ecclesiastical History, Volume II: Books 4-5. Lives of the Abbots. Letter to Egbert

Ecclesiastical History, Volume II: Books 4-5. Lives of the Abbots. Letter to Egbert

Bede
King, J. E.

Historical works by Bede (672 or 673–735 CE) include his Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Lives of the Abbots of Bede’s monastery, accounts of Cuthbert, and the Letter to Egbert, Bede’s pupil.

249.Cover: Histories: Books 4-5. Annals: Books 1-3

Histories: Books 4-5. Annals: Books 1-3

Tacitus
Moore, Clifford H.
Jackson, John

Tacitus (c. 55–c. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69–70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14–28, 31–37, and, partially, 47–66.

250.Cover: Apology. De Spectaculis. Minucius Felix: Octavius

Apology. De Spectaculis. Minucius Felix: Octavius

Tertullian
Minucius Felix
Glover, T. R.
Rendall, Gerald H.

Tertullian (c. 150–222 CE) founded a Christian Latin language and literature, strove to unite the demands of the Bible with Church practice, defended Christianity, attacked heresy, and pondered morality. Octavius by Minucius, an early Christian writer of unknown date, is a debate between belief and unbelief that depicts Roman religion and society.

251.Cover: On Architecture, Volume I: Books 1-5

On Architecture, Volume I: Books 1-5

Vitruvius
Granger, Frank

On Architecture, completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture. Topics include town planning, building materials, temples, the architectural orders, houses, pavements, mosaics, water supply, measurements, and machines.

252.Cover: Pro Milone. In Pisonem. Pro Scauro. Pro Fonteio. Pro Rabirio Postumo. Pro Marcello. Pro Ligario. Pro Rege Deiotaro

Pro Milone. In Pisonem. Pro Scauro. Pro Fonteio. Pro Rabirio Postumo. Pro Marcello. Pro Ligario. Pro Rege Deiotaro

Cicero
Watts, N. H.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

253.Cover: Fasti

Fasti

Ovid
Frazer, James G.

In Fasti, Ovid (43 BCE–17 CE) sets forth explanations of the festivals and sacred rites that were noted on the Roman calendar, and relates in graphic detail the legends attached to specific dates. The poem is an invaluable source of information about religious practices.

254.Cover: Moral Essays, Volume II: De Consolatione ad Marciam. De Vita Beata. De Otio. De Tranquillitate Animi. De Brevitate Vitae. De Consolatione ad Polybium. De Consolatione ad Helviam

Moral Essays, Volume II: De Consolatione ad Marciam. De Vita Beata. De Otio. De Tranquillitate Animi. De Brevitate Vitae. De Consolatione ad Polybium. De Consolatione ad Helviam

Seneca
Basore, John W.

In Moral Essays, Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) expresses his Stoic philosophy on providence, steadfastness, anger, forgiveness, consolation, the happy life, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, and gift-giving.

255.Cover: Physics, Volume II: Books 5-8

Physics, Volume II: Books 5-8

Aristotle
Wicksteed, P. H.
Cornford, F. M.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

256.Cover: Philostratus the Elder, Imagines. Philostratus the Younger, Imagines. Callistratus, Descriptions

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines. Philostratus the Younger, Imagines. Callistratus, Descriptions

Philostratus the Elder
Philostratus the Younger
Callistratus
Fairbanks, Arthur

Sixty-five descriptions, ostensibly of paintings in a gallery at Naples, are credited to an Elder Philostratus (born c. 190 CE); to a Younger Philostratus, apparently his grandson, seventeen similar descriptions. Fourteen descriptions of statues in stone or bronze attributed to Callistratus were probably written in the fourth century CE.

257.Cover: Discourses 1-11

Discourses 1-11

Dio Chrysostom
Cohoon, J. W.

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40–c. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

258.Cover: Greek Elegiac Poetry: From the Seventh to the Fifth Centuries BC

Greek Elegiac Poetry: From the Seventh to the Fifth Centuries BC

Gerber, Douglas E.
Tyrtaeus
Solon
Theognis
Mimnermus

The Greek poetry of the seventh to the fifth century BCE that we call elegy was composed primarily for banquets and convivial gatherings. Its subject matter consists of almost any topic, excluding only the scurrilous and obscene. Most substantial in this volume is the collection of elegiac verses to which Theognis’s name is attached (the Theognidea).

259.Cover: Greek Iambic Poetry: From the Seventh to the Fifth Centuries BC

Greek Iambic Poetry: From the Seventh to the Fifth Centuries BC

Gerber, Douglas E.
Archilochus
Semonides
Hipponax

The poetry of the seventh to the fifth centuries BCE that the Greeks called iambic seems connected with cult songs used in religious festivals, but its purpose is unclear.

260.Cover: The Little Carthaginian. Pseudolus. The Rope

The Little Carthaginian. Pseudolus. The Rope

Plautus
de Melo, Wolfgang

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205–184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

261.Cover: On the Confusion of Tongues. On the Migration of Abraham. Who Is the Heir of Divine Things? On Mating with the Preliminary Studies

On the Confusion of Tongues. On the Migration of Abraham. Who Is the Heir of Divine Things? On Mating with the Preliminary Studies

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

262.Cover: Select Letters

Select Letters

Wright, F. A.

The letters of Saint Jerome (c. 345–420 CE) are an essential source for our knowledge of Christian life in the fourth and fifth centuries CE; they also provide insight into one of the most striking and complex personalities of the time.

263.Cover: Historia Augusta, Volume III: The Two Valerians. The Two Gallieni. The Thirty Pretenders. The Deified Claudius. The Deified Aurelian. Tacitus. Probus. Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. Carus, Carinus and Numerian

Historia Augusta, Volume III: The Two Valerians. The Two Gallieni. The Thirty Pretenders. The Deified Claudius. The Deified Aurelian. Tacitus. Probus. Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. Carus, Carinus and Numerian

Magie, David

The Historia Augusta (or Scriptores Historiae Augustae) is a series of biographies of Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants from Hadrian to Numerianus (117–284 CE) modeled on Suetonius’s Lives of the Caesars (second century CE). Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author.

264.Cover: Politics

Politics

Aristotle
Rackham, H.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

265.Cover: Ecclesiastical History, Volume II: Books 6-10

Ecclesiastical History, Volume II: Books 6-10

Eusebius
Oulton, J. E. L.

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea from about 315 CE, was the most important writer in the age of Constantine. His history of the Christian church from the ministry of Jesus to 324 CE is a treasury of information, especially on the Eastern centers.

266.Cover: Select Papyri, Volume I: Private Documents

Select Papyri, Volume I: Private Documents

Hunt, A. S.
Edgar, C. C.

This is the first of two volumes giving a selection of Greek papyri relating to private and public business. They cover a period from before 300 BCE to the eighth century CE. Most were found in rubbish heaps or remains of ancient houses or in tombs in Egypt. From such papyri we get much information about administration and social and economic conditions in Egypt, and about native Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine law, as well as glimpses of ordinary life. This volume contains: Agreements (71 examples); these concern marriage, divorce, adoption, apprenticeship, sales, leases, employment of labourers. Receipts (10). Wills (6). Deed of disownment. Personal letters from men and women, young and old (82). Memoranda (2). Invitations (5). Orders for payment (2). Agenda (2). Accounts and inventories (12). Questions of oracles (3). Christian prayers (2). A Gnostic charm. Horoscopes (2).

267.Cover: Geography, Volume VIII: Book 17. General Index

Geography, Volume VIII: Book 17. General Index

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE–c. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

268.Cover: On the Nature of the Gods. Academics

On the Nature of the Gods. Academics

Cicero
Rackham, H.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

269.Cover: Anabasis of Alexander, Volume II: Books 5-7. Indica

Anabasis of Alexander, Volume II: Books 5-7. Indica

Arrian
Brunt, P. A.

The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian (ca. 95–175 BCE) is the best extant account of Alexander the Great’s adult life. A description of India, and of Nearchus’s voyage thence, was to be a supplement.

270.Cover: Letters, Volume IV: Letters 249-368. On Greek Literature

Letters, Volume IV: Letters 249-368. On Greek Literature

Basil
Deferrari, Roy J.
McGuire, M. R. P.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

271.Cover: Metaphysics, Volume I: Books 1-9

Metaphysics, Volume I: Books 1-9

Aristotle
Tredennick, Hugh

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

272.Cover: Description of Greece, Volume III: Books 6-8.21 (Elis 2, Achaia, Arcadia)

Description of Greece, Volume III: Books 6-8.21 (Elis 2, Achaia, Arcadia)

Pausanias
Jones, W. H. S.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world’s great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

273.Cover: Outlines of Pyrrhonism

Outlines of Pyrrhonism

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160–210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

274.Cover: The Learned Banqueters, Volume V: Books 10.420e-11

The Learned Banqueters, Volume V: Books 10.420e-11

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

275.Cover: On Flight and Finding. On the Change of Names. On Dreams

On Flight and Finding. On the Change of Names. On Dreams

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

276.Cover: Republic, Volume II: Books 6-10

Republic, Volume II: Books 6-10

Plato
Emlyn-Jones, Christopher
Preddy, William

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

277.Cover: Punica, Volume I: Books 1-8

Punica, Volume I: Books 1-8

Silius Italicus
Duff, J. D.

Silius Italicus (25–101 CE) composed an epic Punica in 17 books on the Second Punic War (218–202 BCE). Silius’s poem relies largely on Livy’s prose for facts. It also echoes poets, especially Virgil, and employs techniques traditional in Latin epic.

278.Cover: Punica, Volume II: Books 9-17

Punica, Volume II: Books 9-17

Silius Italicus
Duff, J. D.

Silius Italicus (25–101 CE) composed an epic Punica in 17 books on the Second Punic War (218–202 BCE). Silius’s poem relies largely on Livy’s prose for facts. It also echoes poets, especially Virgil, and employs techniques traditional in Latin epic.

279.Cover: Library of History, Volume I: Books 1-2.34

Library of History, Volume I: Books 1-2.34

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

280.Cover: On Architecture, Volume II: Books 6-10

On Architecture, Volume II: Books 6-10

Vitruvius
Granger, Frank

On Architecture, completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture. Topics include town planning, building materials, temples, the architectural orders, houses, pavements, mosaics, water supply, measurements, and machines.

281.Cover: Jewish Antiquities, Volume III: Books 7-8

Jewish Antiquities, Volume III: Books 7-8

Josephus
Marcus, Ralph

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

282.Cover: Select Papyri, Volume II: Public Documents

Select Papyri, Volume II: Public Documents

Hunt, A. S.
Edgar, C. C.

Greek papyri relating to private and public business in Egypt from before 300 BCE to the eighth century CE inform us about administration; social and economic conditions in Egypt; Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine law. They also offer glimpses of ordinary life.

283.Cover: On Agriculture

On Agriculture

Cato
Varro
Hooper, W. D.
Ash, Harrison Boyd

Cato’s second century BCE De Agricultura is our earliest complete Latin prose text, recommends farming for its security and profitability, and advises on management of labor and resources. Varro’s Res rustica (37 BCE) is not a practical treatise but instruction, in dialogue form, about agricultural life meant for prosperous country gentlemen.

284.Cover: Minor Latin Poets, Volume I: Publilius Syrus. Elegies on Maecenas. Grattius. Calpurnius Siculus. Laus Pisonis. Einsiedeln Eclogues. Aetna

Minor Latin Poets, Volume I: Publilius Syrus. Elegies on Maecenas. Grattius. Calpurnius Siculus. Laus Pisonis. Einsiedeln Eclogues. Aetna

Duff, J. Wight
Duff, Arnold M.
Aetna
Calpurnius Siculus
Publilius Syrus
Laus Pisonis
Grattius

Works such as those of the mime-writer Publilius Syrus, who flourished c. 45 BCE, and Rutilius Namatianus, who gave a graphic account of his voyage from Rome to Gaul in 416 CE, represent the wide variety of theme that lends interest to Latin poetry produced during a period of four and a half centuries.

285.Cover: Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices

Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices

Aristotle
Rackham, H.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

286.Cover: Argonautica

Argonautica

Valerius Flaccus
Mozley, J. H.

Gaius Valerius Flaccus flourished c. 70–90 BCE and composed an incomplete epic Argonautica in eight books, on the quest for the Golden Fleece. Valerius effectively rehandles the story already told by Apollonius Rhodius, recalls Virgilian language and thought, displays learning, and alludes to contemporary Rome.

287.Cover: Metaphysics, Volume II: Books 10-14. Oeconomica. Magna Moralia

Metaphysics, Volume II: Books 10-14. Oeconomica. Magna Moralia

Aristotle
Tredennick, Hugh
Armstrong, G. Cyril

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

288.Cover: On the Soul. Parva Naturalia. On Breath

On the Soul. Parva Naturalia. On Breath

Aristotle
Hett, W. S.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

289.Cover: On Abraham. On Joseph. On Moses

On Abraham. On Joseph. On Moses

Philo
Colson, F. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

290.Cover: The Anecdota or Secret History

The Anecdota or Secret History

Procopius
Dewing, H. B.

In Secret History, the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) attacks the sixth century CE emperor Justinian and empress Theodora and alleges their ruinous effect on the Roman empire. Procopius’s pen is particularly sharp in portraying Theodora’s lewdness, duplicity, cruelty, spite, vanity and pride.

291.Cover: Against Logicians

Against Logicians

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160–210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

292.Cover: On Medicine, Volume I: Books 1-4

On Medicine, Volume I: Books 1-4

Celsus
Spencer, W. G.

Celsus, a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time (probably first century CE) than any other author. Book 1 is on Greek schools of medicine and dietetics; Book 2 on prognosis, diagnosis, and general therapeutics; Book 3 on internal ailments; Book 4 on local bodily diseases.

293.Cover: The Verrine Orations, Volume II: Against Verres, Part 2, Books 3-5

The Verrine Orations, Volume II: Against Verres, Part 2, Books 3-5

Cicero
Greenwood, L. H. G.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

294.Cover: Remains of Old Latin, Volume I: Ennius. Caecilius

Remains of Old Latin, Volume I: Ennius. Caecilius

Warmington, E. H.
Ennius
Caecilius

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors; the Twelve Tables of Roman law; archaic inscriptions.

295.Cover: History of Rome, Volume IX: Books 31-34

History of Rome, Volume IX: Books 31-34

Livy
Sage, Evan T.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

296.Cover: Poems. Letters: Books 1-2

Poems. Letters: Books 1-2

Sidonius
Anderson, W. B.

Extant works by Sidonius (born c. 430 CE) are three long panegyrics in verse, poems addressed to or concerned with friends, and nine books of letters.

297.Cover: Description of Greece, Volume IV: Books 8.22-10 (Arcadia, Boeotia, Phocis and Ozolian Locri)

Description of Greece, Volume IV: Books 8.22-10 (Arcadia, Boeotia, Phocis and Ozolian Locri)

Pausanias
Jones, W. H. S.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world’s great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

298.Cover: Description of Greece, Volume V: Maps, Plans, Illustrations, and General Index

Description of Greece, Volume V: Maps, Plans, Illustrations, and General Index

Pausanias
Wycherley, R. E.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world’s great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

299.Cover: Orations, Volume III: Orations 21-26: Against Meidias. Against Androtion. Against Aristocrates. Against Timocrates. Against Aristogeiton 1 and 2

Orations, Volume III: Orations 21-26: Against Meidias. Against Androtion. Against Aristocrates. Against Timocrates. Against Aristogeiton 1 and 2

Demosthenes
Vince, J. H.

Demosthenes (384–322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who later became also a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and severe control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

300.Cover: History, Volume I: Books 14-19

History, Volume I: Books 14-19

Ammianus Marcellinus
Rolfe, J. C.

Ammianus (c. 325–c. 395 CE), a Greek from Antioch, served many years as an officer in the Roman army, then settled in Rome, where he wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. The portion that survives covers twenty-five years in the historian’s own lifetime: the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens.

301.Cover: History of Rome, Volume X: Books 35-37

History of Rome, Volume X: Books 35-37

Livy
Sage, Evan T.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

302.Cover: The Passing of Peregrinus. The Runaways. Toxaris or Friendship. The Dance. Lexiphanes. The Eunuch. Astrology. The Mistaken Critic. The Parliament of the Gods. The Tyrannicide. Disowned

The Passing of Peregrinus. The Runaways. Toxaris or Friendship. The Dance. Lexiphanes. The Eunuch. Astrology. The Mistaken Critic. The Parliament of the Gods. The Tyrannicide. Disowned

Lucian
Harmon, A. M.

Lucian (c. 120–190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

303.Cover: Library of History, Volume II: Books 2.35-4.58

Library of History, Volume II: Books 2.35-4.58

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

304.Cover: On Medicine, Volume II: Books 5-6

On Medicine, Volume II: Books 5-6

Celsus
Spencer, W. G.

Celsus, a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time (probably first century CE) than any other author. Book 5 is on treatment by drugs of general diseases, Book 6 on treatment by drugs of local diseases.

305.Cover: Moralia, Volume IV: Roman Questions. Greek Questions. Greek and Roman Parallel Stories. On the Fortune of the Romans. On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander. Were the Athenians More Famous in War or in Wisdom?

Moralia, Volume IV: Roman Questions. Greek Questions. Greek and Roman Parallel Stories. On the Fortune of the Romans. On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander. Were the Athenians More Famous in War or in Wisdom?

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

306.Cover: Moralia, Volume V: Isis and Osiris. The E at Delphi. The Oracles at Delphi No Longer Given in Verse. The Obsolescence of Oracles

Moralia, Volume V: Isis and Osiris. The E at Delphi. The Oracles at Delphi No Longer Given in Verse. The Obsolescence of Oracles

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

307.Cover: Minor Works: On Colours. On Things Heard. Physiognomics. On Plants. On Marvellous Things Heard. Mechanical Problems. On Indivisible Lines. The Situations and Names of Winds. On Melissus, Xenophanes, Gorgias

Minor Works: On Colours. On Things Heard. Physiognomics. On Plants. On Marvellous Things Heard. Mechanical Problems. On Indivisible Lines. The Situations and Names of Winds. On Melissus, Xenophanes, Gorgias

Aristotle
Hett, W. S.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

308.Cover: Minor Attic Orators, Volume I: Antiphon. Andocides

Minor Attic Orators, Volume I: Antiphon. Andocides

Maidment, K. J.
Antiphon
Andocides

Antiphon of Athens, born c. 480 BCE, disliked democracy and was an ardent oligarch. Of his fifteen extant works three concern real murder cases. The others are academic exercises. Andocides of Athens, born c. 440 BCE, disliked the extremes of democracy and oligarchy. Of his four extant speeches, Against Alcibiades is doubtful.

309.Cover: Pro Sestio. In Vatinium

Pro Sestio. In Vatinium

Cicero
Gardner, R.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

310.Cover: Moral Essays, Volume III: De Beneficiis

Moral Essays, Volume III: De Beneficiis

Seneca
Basore, John W.

In Moral Essays, Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) expresses his Stoic philosophy on providence, steadfastness, anger, forgiveness, consolation, the happy life, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, and gift-giving.

311.Cover: Against Physicists. Against Ethicists

Against Physicists. Against Ethicists

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160–210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

312.Cover: Annals: Books 4-6, 11-12

Annals: Books 4-6, 11-12

Tacitus
Jackson, John

Tacitus (c. 55–c. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69–70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14–28, 31–37, and, partially, 47–66.

313.Cover: History of Rome, Volume XI: Books 38-39

History of Rome, Volume XI: Books 38-39

Livy
Sage, Evan T.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

314.Cover: Remains of Old Latin, Volume II: Livius Andronicus. Naevius. Pacuvius. Accius

Remains of Old Latin, Volume II: Livius Andronicus. Naevius. Pacuvius. Accius

Warmington, E. H.
Livius Andronicus
Naevius
Pacuvius
Accius

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors; the Twelve Tables of Roman law; archaic inscriptions.

315.Cover: History, Volume II: Books 20-26

History, Volume II: Books 20-26

Ammianus Marcellinus
Rolfe, J. C.

Ammianus (c. 325–c. 395 CE), a Greek from Antioch, served many years as an officer in the Roman army, then settled in Rome, where he wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. The portion that survives covers twenty-five years in the historian’s own lifetime: the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens.

316.Cover: Problems, Volume I: Books 1-19

Problems, Volume I: Books 1-19

Aristotle
Mayhew, Robert

Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought.

317.Cover: Problems, Volume II: Books 20-38. Rhetoric to Alexander

Problems, Volume II: Books 20-38. Rhetoric to Alexander

Aristotle
Mayhew, Robert
Mirhady, David C.

Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. Rhetoric to Alexander provides practical advice to orators and was likely composed during the period of Aristotle’s tutorship of Alexander, perhaps by Anaximenes, another of Alexander’s tutors.

318.Cover: Orations, Volume IV: Orations 27-40: Private Cases

Orations, Volume IV: Orations 27-40: Private Cases

Demosthenes
Murray, A. T.

Demosthenes (384–322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who later became also a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and severe control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

319.Cover: Roman Antiquities, Volume I: Books 1-2

Roman Antiquities, Volume I: Books 1-2

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus’s Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole.

320.Cover: On the Decalogue. On the Special Laws, Books 1-3

On the Decalogue. On the Special Laws, Books 1-3

Philo
Colson, F. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

321.Cover: Moralia, Volume X: Love Stories. That a Philosopher Ought to Converse Especially With Men in Power. To an Uneducated Ruler. Whether an Old Man Should Engage in Public Affairs. Precepts of Statecraft. On Monarchy, Democracy, and Oligarchy. That We Ought Not to Borrow. Lives

Moralia, Volume X: Love Stories. That a Philosopher Ought to Converse Especially With Men in Power. To an Uneducated Ruler. Whether an Old Man Should Engage in Public Affairs. Precepts of Statecraft. On Monarchy, Democracy, and Oligarchy. That We Ought Not to Borrow. Lives

Plutarch
Fowler, Harold North

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

322.Cover: Annals: Books 13-16

Annals: Books 13-16

Tacitus
Jackson, John

Tacitus (c. 55–c. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69–70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14–28, 31–37, and, partially, 47–66.

323.Cover: Parts of Animals. Movement of Animals. Progression of Animals

Parts of Animals. Movement of Animals. Progression of Animals

Aristotle
Peck, A. L.
Forster, E. S.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

324.Cover: In Catilinam 1-4. Pro Murena. Pro Sulla. Pro Flacco

In Catilinam 1-4. Pro Murena. Pro Sulla. Pro Flacco

Cicero
Macdonald, C.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

325.Cover: Categories. On Interpretation. Prior Analytics

Categories. On Interpretation. Prior Analytics

Aristotle
Cooke, H. P.
Tredennick, Hugh

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

326.Cover: Jewish Antiquities, Volume IV: Books 9-11

Jewish Antiquities, Volume IV: Books 9-11

Josephus
Marcus, Ralph

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

327.Cover: The Learned Banqueters, Volume VI: Books 12-13.594b

The Learned Banqueters, Volume VI: Books 12-13.594b

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

328.Cover: Stichus. Three-Dollar Day. Truculentus. The Tale of a Traveling-Bag. Fragments

Stichus. Three-Dollar Day. Truculentus. The Tale of a Traveling-Bag. Fragments

Plautus
de Melo, Wolfgang

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205–184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

329.Cover: Remains of Old Latin, Volume III: Lucilius. The Twelve Tables

Remains of Old Latin, Volume III: Lucilius. The Twelve Tables

Warmington, E. H.
Lucilius

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors; the Twelve Tables of Roman law; archaic inscriptions.

330.Cover: Natural History, Volume I: Books 1-2

Natural History, Volume I: Books 1-2

Pliny
Rackham, H.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

331.Cover: History, Volume III: Books 27-31. Excerpta Valesiana

History, Volume III: Books 27-31. Excerpta Valesiana

Ammianus Marcellinus
Rolfe, J. C.

Ammianus (c. 325–c. 395 CE), a Greek from Antioch, served many years as an officer in the Roman army, then settled in Rome, where he wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. The portion that survives covers twenty-five years in the historian’s own lifetime: the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens.

332.Cover: History of Rome, Volume XII: Books 40-42

History of Rome, Volume XII: Books 40-42

Livy
Sage, Evan T.
Schlesinger, Alfred C.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

333.Cover: On the Latin Language, Volume I: Books 5-7

On the Latin Language, Volume I: Books 5-7

Varro
Kent, Roland G.

Of more than seventy works by Varro (116–27 BCE) we have only his treatise On Agriculture and part of his De Lingua Latina (On the Latin Language), a work typical of its author’s interest not only in antiquarian matters but also in the collection of scientific facts, and containing much of very great value to the study of the Latin language.

334.Cover: On the Latin Language, Volume II: Books 8-10. Fragments

On the Latin Language, Volume II: Books 8-10. Fragments

Varro
Kent, Roland G.

Of more than seventy works by Varro (116–27 BCE) we have only his treatise On Agriculture and part of his De Lingua Latina (On the Latin Language), a work typical of its author’s interest not only in antiquarian matters but also in the collection of scientific facts, and containing much of very great value to the study of the Latin language.

335.Cover: Greek Mathematical Works, Volume I: Thales to Euclid

Greek Mathematical Works, Volume I: Thales to Euclid

Thomas, Ivor

Greek mathematics from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century CE is represented by the work of, e.g., Pythagoras; Proclus; Thales; Democritus; Hippocrates of Chios; Theaetetus; Plato; Eudoxus of Cnidus; Aristotle; Euclid; Eratosthenes; Apollonius; Ptolemy; Heron of Alexandria; Diophantus; and Pappus.

336.Cover: On Medicine, Volume III: Books 7-8

On Medicine, Volume III: Books 7-8

Celsus
Spencer, W. G.

Celsus, a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time (probably first century CE) than any other author. Books VII and Book VIII deal with surgery and present accounts of many operations, including amputation.

337.Cover: Moralia, Volume VI: Can Virtue Be Taught? On Moral Virtue. On the Control of Anger. On Tranquility of Mind. On Brotherly Love. On Affection for Offspring. Whether Vice Be Sufficient to Cause Unhappiness. Whether the Affections of the Soul are Worse Than Those of the Body. Co

Moralia, Volume VI: Can Virtue Be Taught? On Moral Virtue. On the Control of Anger. On Tranquility of Mind. On Brotherly Love. On Affection for Offspring. Whether Vice Be Sufficient to Cause Unhappiness. Whether the Affections of the Soul are Worse Than Those of the Body. Co

Plutarch
Helmbold, W. C.

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

338.Cover: On the Heavens

On the Heavens

Aristotle
Guthrie, W. K. C.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

339.Cover: Discourses 12-30

Discourses 12-30

Dio Chrysostom
Cohoon, J. W.

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40–c. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

340.Cover: Library of History, Volume III: Books 4.59-8

Library of History, Volume III: Books 4.59-8

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

341.Cover: On the Special Laws, Book 4. On the Virtues. On Rewards and Punishments

On the Special Laws, Book 4. On the Virtues. On Rewards and Punishments

Philo
Colson, F. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

342.Cover: Brutus. Orator

Brutus. Orator

Cicero
Hendrickson, G. L.
Hubbell, H. M.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

343.Cover: On Buildings. General Index

On Buildings. General Index

Procopius
Dewing, H. B.
Downey, Glanville

In On Buildings, the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) describes the churches, public buildings, fortifications, and bridges Justinian erected throughout his empire, from the Church of St. Sophia in Constantinople to city walls at Carthage. The work is richly informative about architecture of the sixth century CE.

344.Cover: Dionysiaca, Volume I: Books 1-15

Dionysiaca, Volume I: Books 1-15

Nonnos
Rouse, W. H. D.

The epic Dionysiaca by Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt (fifth century CE) concerns Dionysus’ earthly career from birth at Thebes to reception on Olympus. In a poem full of mythology, astrology, and magic, Nonnos relates the god’s conquest of the East and also, sensually and explicitly, his amorous adventures.

345.Cover: The Learned Banqueters, Volume VII: Books 13.594b-14

The Learned Banqueters, Volume VII: Books 13.594b-14

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

346.Cover: Orations, Volume V: Orations 41-49: Private Cases

Orations, Volume V: Orations 41-49: Private Cases

Demosthenes
Murray, A. T.

Demosthenes (384–322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who later became also a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and severe control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

347.Cover: Roman Antiquities, Volume II: Books 3-4

Roman Antiquities, Volume II: Books 3-4

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus’s Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole.

348.Cover: On the Orator: Books 1-2

On the Orator: Books 1-2

Cicero
Sutton, E. W.
Rackham, H.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

349.Cover: On the Orator: Book 3. On Fate. Stoic Paradoxes. Divisions of Oratory

On the Orator: Book 3. On Fate. Stoic Paradoxes. Divisions of Oratory

Cicero
Rackham, H.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

350.Cover: History of Egypt and Other Works

History of Egypt and Other Works

Manetho
Waddell, W. G.

Eight works or parts of works were ascribed to Manetho, a third century BCE Egyptian, all on history and religion and all apparently in Greek. They survive only as quoted by other writers and include the spurious Book of Sôthis. The Kings of Thebes (in Egypt) and the Old Chronicle are doubtful.

351.Cover: Orations, Volume VI: Orations 50-59: Private Cases. In Neaeram

Orations, Volume VI: Orations 50-59: Private Cases. In Neaeram

Demosthenes
Murray, A. T.

Demosthenes (384–322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who later became also a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and severe control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

352.Cover: Natural History, Volume II: Books 3-7

Natural History, Volume II: Books 3-7

Pliny
Rackham, H.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

353.Cover: Natural History, Volume III: Books 8-11

Natural History, Volume III: Books 8-11

Pliny
Rackham, H.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

354.Cover: Dionysiaca, Volume II: Books 16-35

Dionysiaca, Volume II: Books 16-35

Nonnos
Rouse, W. H. D.

The epic Dionysiaca by Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt (fifth century CE) concerns Dionysus’ earthly career from birth at Thebes to reception on Olympus. In a poem full of mythology, astrology, and magic, Nonnos relates the god’s conquest of the East and also, sensually and explicitly, his amorous adventures.

355.Cover: History of Rome, Volume VI: Books 23-25

History of Rome, Volume VI: Books 23-25

Livy
Moore, Frank Gardner

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

356.Cover: Dionysiaca, Volume III: Books 36-48

Dionysiaca, Volume III: Books 36-48

Nonnos
Rouse, W. H. D.

The epic Dionysiaca by Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt (fifth century CE) concerns Dionysus’ earthly career from birth at Thebes to reception on Olympus. In a poem full of mythology, astrology, and magic, Nonnos relates the god’s conquest of the East and also, sensually and explicitly, his amorous adventures.

357.Cover: Roman Antiquities, Volume III: Books 5-6.48

Roman Antiquities, Volume III: Books 5-6.48

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus’s Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole.

358.Cover: Discourses 31-36

Discourses 31-36

Dio Chrysostom
Cohoon, J. W.
Crosby, H. Lamar

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40–c. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

359.Cover: Remains of Old Latin, Volume IV: Archaic Inscriptions

Remains of Old Latin, Volume IV: Archaic Inscriptions

Warmington, E. H.

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors; the Twelve Tables of Roman law; archaic inscriptions.

360.Cover: Select Papyri, Volume III: Poetry

Select Papyri, Volume III: Poetry

Page, Denys L.

Fragments of ancient literature, from the seventh to the third century BCE, found on papyri in Egypt include examples of tragedy; satyr drama; Old, Middle, and New Comedy; mime; lyric, elegiac, iambic, and hexametric poetry.

361.Cover: On Agriculture, Volume I: Books 1-4

On Agriculture, Volume I: Books 1-4

Columella
Ash, Harrison Boyd

Columella (first century CE) included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture, but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy.

362.Cover: Greek Mathematical Works, Volume II: Aristarchus to Pappus

Greek Mathematical Works, Volume II: Aristarchus to Pappus

Thomas, Ivor

Greek mathematics from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century CE is represented by the work of, e.g., Pythagoras; Proclus; Thales; Democritus; Hippocrates of Chios; Theaetetus; Plato; Eudoxus of Cnidus; Aristotle; Euclid; Eratosthenes; Apollonius; Ptolemy; Heron of Alexandria; Diophantus; and Pappus.

363.Cover: Every Good Man is Free. On the Contemplative Life. On the Eternity of the World. Against Flaccus. Apology for the Jews. On Providence

Every Good Man is Free. On the Contemplative Life. On the Eternity of the World. Against Flaccus. Apology for the Jews. On Providence

Philo
Colson, F. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

364.Cover: Roman Antiquities, Volume IV: Books 6.49-7

Roman Antiquities, Volume IV: Books 6.49-7

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus’s Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole.

365.Cover: Jewish Antiquities, Volume V: Books 12-13

Jewish Antiquities, Volume V: Books 12-13

Josephus
Marcus, Ralph

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

366.Cover: Generation of Animals

Generation of Animals

Aristotle
Peck, A. L.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

367.Cover: History of Rome, Volume VII: Books 26-27

History of Rome, Volume VII: Books 26-27

Livy
Moore, Frank Gardner

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

368.Cover: History of Alexander, Volume I: Books 1-5

History of Alexander, Volume I: Books 1-5

Quintus Curtius
Rolfe, J. C.

Quintus Curtius wrote a history of Alexander the Great in the first or second century CE. The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and 10. Curtius narrates exciting experiences, develops his hero’s character, moralizes, and provides one of the five extant works that are evidence for Alexander’s career.

369.Cover: History of Alexander, Volume II: Books 6-10

History of Alexander, Volume II: Books 6-10

Quintus Curtius
Rolfe, J. C.

Quintus Curtius wrote a history of Alexander the Great in the first or second century CE. The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and 10. Curtius narrates exciting experiences, develops his hero’s character, moralizes, and provides one of the five extant works that are evidence for Alexander’s career.

370.Cover: Natural History, Volume IV: Books 12-16

Natural History, Volume IV: Books 12-16

Pliny
Rackham, H.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

371.Cover: Natural History, Volume V: Books 17-19

Natural History, Volume V: Books 17-19

Pliny
Rackham, H.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

372.Cover: Roman Antiquities, V: Books 8-9.24

Roman Antiquities, V: Books 8-9.24

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus’s Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole.

373.Cover: Evagoras. Helen. Busiris. Plataicus. Concerning the Team of Horses. Trapeziticus. Against Callimachus. Aegineticus. Against Lochites. Against Euthynus. Letters

Evagoras. Helen. Busiris. Plataicus. Concerning the Team of Horses. Trapeziticus. Against Callimachus. Aegineticus. Against Lochites. Against Euthynus. Letters

Isocrates
Van Hook, La Rue

The importance of Isocrates (436–338 BCE) for the study of Greek civilization of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive; these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant.

374.Cover: Orations, Volume VII: Orations 60-61: Funeral Speech. Erotic Essay. Exordia. Letters

Orations, Volume VII: Orations 60-61: Funeral Speech. Erotic Essay. Exordia. Letters

Demosthenes
De Witt, N. W.
De Witt, N. J.

Demosthenes (384–322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who later became also a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and severe control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

375.Cover: Library of History, Volume IV: Books 9-12.40

Library of History, Volume IV: Books 9-12.40

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

376.Cover: Discourses 37-60

Discourses 37-60

Dio Chrysostom
Crosby, H. Lamar

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40–c. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

377.Cover: Library of History, Volume IX: Books 18-19.65

Library of History, Volume IX: Books 18-19.65

Diodorus Siculus
Geer, Russel M.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

378.Cover: Roman Antiquities, Volume VI: Books 9.25-10

Roman Antiquities, Volume VI: Books 9.25-10

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus’s Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole.

379.Cover: On the Embassy to Gaius. General Indexes

On the Embassy to Gaius. General Indexes

Philo
Colson, F. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

380.Cover: Questions on Genesis

Questions on Genesis

Philo
Marcus, Ralph

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

381.Cover: History of Rome, Volume VIII: Books 28-30

History of Rome, Volume VIII: Books 28-30

Livy
Moore, Frank Gardner

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

382.Cover: Against Professors

Against Professors

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160–210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

383.Cover: Alciphron, Aelian, and Philostratus: The Letters

Alciphron, Aelian, and Philostratus: The Letters

Alciphron
Aelian
Philostratus
Benner, A. R.
Fobes, F. H.

The fictitious, highly literary Letters of Alciphron (second century CE) are mostly to invented characters. The Letters of Farmers by Aelian (c. 170–235 CE) portray the country ways of their imagined writers. The Erotic Epistles of Philostratus (perhaps born c. 170 CE) resemble and may have been influenced by those of Alciphron.

384.Cover: Library of History, Volume V: Books 12.41-13

Library of History, Volume V: Books 12.41-13

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

385.Cover: Discourses 61-80. Fragments. Letters

Discourses 61-80. Fragments. Letters

Dio Chrysostom
Crosby, H. Lamar

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40–c. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

386.Cover: On Invention. The Best Kind of Orator. Topics

On Invention. The Best Kind of Orator. Topics

Cicero
Hubbell, H. M.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

387.Cover: Preface. Daily Round. Divinity of Christ. Origin of Sin. Fight for Mansoul. Against Symmachus 1

Preface. Daily Round. Divinity of Christ. Origin of Sin. Fight for Mansoul. Against Symmachus 1

Prudentius
Thomson, H. J.

Prudentius (born 348 CE) used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in the service of Christianity. His works include the Psychomachia, an allegorical description of the struggle between (Christian) virtues and (pagan) vices; lyric poetry; and—a valuable source on Christian iconography—poetic inscriptions for biblical scenes on the walls of a church.

388.Cover: Roman Antiquities, Volume VII: Books 11-20

Roman Antiquities, Volume VII: Books 11-20

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus’s Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole.

389.Cover: Library of History, Volume VII: Books 15.20-16.65

Library of History, Volume VII: Books 15.20-16.65

Diodorus Siculus
Sherman, Charles L.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

390.Cover: Library of History, Volume X: Books 19.66-20

Library of History, Volume X: Books 19.66-20

Diodorus Siculus
Geer, Russel M.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

391.Cover: Posterior Analytics. Topica

Posterior Analytics. Topica

Aristotle
Tredennick, Hugh
Forster, E. S.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

392.Cover: Natural History, Volume VI: Books 20-23

Natural History, Volume VI: Books 20-23

Pliny
Jones, W. H. S.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

393.Cover: Natural History, Volume VII: Books 24-27

Natural History, Volume VII: Books 24-27

Pliny
Jones, W. H. S.
Andrews, A. C.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

394.Cover: Natural History, Volume IX: Books 33-35

Natural History, Volume IX: Books 33-35

Pliny
Rackham, H.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

395.Cover: Minor Attic Orators, Volume II: Lycurgus. Dinarchus. Demades. Hyperides

Minor Attic Orators, Volume II: Lycurgus. Dinarchus. Demades. Hyperides

Burtt, J. O.
Lycurgus
Dinarchus
Demades
Hyperides

Fourth century BCE orators were involved in Athenian resistance to Philip of Macedon. Lycurgus was with Demosthenes in the anti-Macedonian faction. Hyperides was also hostile to Philip and led Athenian patriots after 325 BCE. But Dinarchus favored an oligarchy under Macedonian control and Demades supported the Macedonian cause too.

396.Cover: History of Rome, Volume XIII: Books 43-45

History of Rome, Volume XIII: Books 43-45

Livy
Schlesinger, Alfred C.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

397.Cover: Meteorologica

Meteorologica

Aristotle
Lee, H. D. P.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

398.Cover: Against Symmachus 2. Crowns of Martyrdom. Scenes From History. Epilogue

Against Symmachus 2. Crowns of Martyrdom. Scenes From History. Epilogue

Prudentius
Thomson, H. J.

Prudentius (born 348 CE) used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in the service of Christianity. His works include the Psychomachia, an allegorical description of the struggle between (Christian) virtues and (pagan) vices; lyric poetry; and—a valuable source on Christian iconography—poetic inscriptions for biblical scenes on the walls of a church.

399.Cover: Library of History, Volume VI: Books 14-15.19

Library of History, Volume VI: Books 14-15.19

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

400.Cover: On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing Away. On the Cosmos

On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing Away. On the Cosmos

Aristotle
Forster, E. S.
Furley, D. J.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

401.Cover: Questions on Exodus

Questions on Exodus

Philo
Marcus, Ralph

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

402.Cover: Alexandrian War. African War. Spanish War

Alexandrian War. African War. Spanish War

Caesar
Way, A. G.

Aulus Hirtius, friend of and military subordinate to Caesar (100–44 BCE), may have written the Alexandrian War. African War and Spanish War are detailed accounts clearly by officers who had shared in the campaigns. All three works provide important information on Caesar’s career.

403.Cover: Rhetorica ad Herennium

Rhetorica ad Herennium

Cicero
Caplan, Harry

The Rhetorica ad Herrenium was traditionally attributed to Cicero (106–43 BCE), and reflects, as does Cicero’s De Inventione, Hellenistic rhetorical teaching. But most recent editors attribute it to an unknown author.

404.Cover: History of Rome, Volume XIV: Summaries. Fragments. Julius Obsequens. General Index

History of Rome, Volume XIV: Summaries. Fragments. Julius Obsequens. General Index

Livy
Schlesinger, Alfred C.
Julius Obsequens

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE –12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1–10, 21–45 (except parts of 41 and 43–45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy’s history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

405.Cover: Moralia, Volume VII: On Love of Wealth. On Compliancy. On Envy and Hate. On Praising Oneself Inoffensively. On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance. On Fate. On the Sign of Socrates. On Exile. Consolation to His Wife

Moralia, Volume VII: On Love of Wealth. On Compliancy. On Envy and Hate. On Praising Oneself Inoffensively. On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance. On Fate. On the Sign of Socrates. On Exile. Consolation to His Wife

Plutarch
De Lacy, Phillip H.
Einarson, Benedict

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

406.Cover: Moralia, Volume XII: Concerning the Face Which Appears in the Orb of the Moon. On the Principle of Cold. Whether Fire or Water Is More Useful. Whether Land or Sea Animals Are Cleverer. Beasts Are Rational. On the Eating of Flesh

Moralia, Volume XII: Concerning the Face Which Appears in the Orb of the Moon. On the Principle of Cold. Whether Fire or Water Is More Useful. Whether Land or Sea Animals Are Cleverer. Beasts Are Rational. On the Eating of Flesh

Plutarch
Cherniss, Harold
Helmbold, W. C.

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

407.Cover: On Agriculture, Volume II: Books 5-9

On Agriculture, Volume II: Books 5-9

Columella
Forster, E. S.
Heffner, Edward H.

Columella (first century CE) included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture, but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy.

408.Cover: On Agriculture, Volume III: Books 10-12. On Trees

On Agriculture, Volume III: Books 10-12. On Trees

Columella
Forster, E. S.
Heffner, Edward H.

Columella (first century CE) included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture, but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy.

409.Cover: Library of History, Volume XI: Fragments of Books 21-32

Library of History, Volume XI: Fragments of Books 21-32

Diodorus Siculus
Walton, Francis R.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

410.Cover: Jewish Antiquities, Volume VII: Books 16-17

Jewish Antiquities, Volume VII: Books 16-17

Josephus
Marcus, Ralph
Wikgren, Allen

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

411.Cover: City of God, Volume I: Books 1-3

City of God, Volume I: Books 1-3

Augustine
McCracken, George E.

City of God by Augustine (354–430 CE) unfolds God’s action in the progress of the world’s history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

412.Cover: City of God, Volume II: Books 4-7

City of God, Volume II: Books 4-7

Augustine
Green, William M.

City of God by Augustine (354–430 CE) unfolds God’s action in the progress of the world’s history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

413.Cover: City of God, Volume III: Books 8-11

City of God, Volume III: Books 8-11

Augustine
Wiesen, David S.

City of God by Augustine (354–430 CE) unfolds God’s action in the progress of the world’s history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

414.Cover: City of God, Volume IV: Books 12-15

City of God, Volume IV: Books 12-15

Augustine
Levine, Philip

City of God by Augustine (354–430 CE) unfolds God’s action in the progress of the world’s history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

415.Cover: City of God, Volume V: Books 16-18.35

City of God, Volume V: Books 16-18.35

Augustine
Sanford, Eva M.
Green, William M.

City of God by Augustine (354–430 CE) unfolds God’s action in the progress of the world’s history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

416.Cover: City of God, Volume VI: Books 18.36-20

City of God, Volume VI: Books 18.36-20

Augustine
Greene, William Chase

City of God by Augustine (354–430 CE) unfolds God’s action in the progress of the world’s history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

417.Cover: City of God, Volume VII: Books 21-22

City of God, Volume VII: Books 21-22

Augustine
Green, William M.

City of God by Augustine (354–430 CE) unfolds God’s action in the progress of the world’s history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

418.Cover: Natural History, Volume VIII: Books 28-32

Natural History, Volume VIII: Books 28-32

Pliny
Jones, W. H. S.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

419.Cover: Natural History, Volume X: Books 36-37

Natural History, Volume X: Books 36-37

Pliny
Eichholz, D. E.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

420.Cover: Letters: Books 3-9

Letters: Books 3-9

Sidonius
Anderson, W. B.

Extant works by Sidonius (born c. 430 CE) are three long panegyrics in verse, poems addressed to or concerned with friends, and nine books of letters.

421.Cover: Aetia, Iambi, Hecale and Other Fragments. Hero and Leander

Aetia, Iambi, Hecale and Other Fragments. Hero and Leander

Callimachus
Musaeus
Trypanis, C. A.
Gelzer, T.
Whitman, Cedric H.

Fragments by Callimachus (third century BCE) include those from the Aetia, Greek aetiological stories; a book of Iambi; and the epic poem Hecale. Hero and Leander by Musaeus (fifth or sixth century CE) is a short epic poem.

422.Cover: Library of History, Volume VIII: Books 16.66-17

Library of History, Volume VIII: Books 16.66-17

Diodorus Siculus
Welles, C. Bradford

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

423.Cover: Library of History, Volume XII: Fragments of Books 33-40

Library of History, Volume XII: Fragments of Books 33-40

Diodorus Siculus
Walton, Francis R.

Diodorus’s Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War; history to Alexander’s death (323 BCE); and history to 54 BCE. Books 1–5 and 11–20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

424.Cover: Moralia, Volume VIII: Table-talk, Books 1-6

Moralia, Volume VIII: Table-talk, Books 1-6

Plutarch
Clement, P. A.
Hoffleit, H. B.

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

425.Cover: Moralia, Volume IX: Table-Talk, Books 7-9. Dialogue on Love

Moralia, Volume IX: Table-Talk, Books 7-9. Dialogue on Love

Plutarch
Minar, Edwin L.
Sandbach, F. H.
Helmbold, W. C.

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

426.Cover: Moralia, Volume XI: On the Malice of Herodotus. Causes of Natural Phenomena

Moralia, Volume XI: On the Malice of Herodotus. Causes of Natural Phenomena

Plutarch
Pearson, Lionel
Sandbach, F. H.

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

427.Cover: Moralia, Volume XIII: Part 1: Platonic Essays

Moralia, Volume XIII: Part 1: Platonic Essays

Plutarch
Cherniss, Harold

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

428.Cover: Moralia, Volume XIV: That Epicurus Actually Makes a Pleasant Life Impossible. Reply to Colotes in Defence of the Other Philosophers. Is

Moralia, Volume XIV: That Epicurus Actually Makes a Pleasant Life Impossible. Reply to Colotes in Defence of the Other Philosophers. Is "Live Unknown" a Wise Precept? On Music

Plutarch
Einarson, Benedict
De Lacy, Phillip H.

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

429.Cover: Moralia, Volume XV: Fragments

Moralia, Volume XV: Fragments

Plutarch
Sandbach, F. H.

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

430.Cover: How to Write History. The Dipsads. Saturnalia. Herodotus or Aetion. Zeuxis or Antiochus. A Slip of the Tongue in Greeting. Apology for the

How to Write History. The Dipsads. Saturnalia. Herodotus or Aetion. Zeuxis or Antiochus. A Slip of the Tongue in Greeting. Apology for the "Salaried Posts in Great Houses." Harmonides. A Conversation with Hesiod. The Scythian or The Consul. Hermotimus or

Lucian
Kilburn, K.

Lucian (c. 120–190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

431.Cover: Dialogues of the Dead. Dialogues of the Sea-Gods. Dialogues of the Gods. Dialogues of the Courtesans

Dialogues of the Dead. Dialogues of the Sea-Gods. Dialogues of the Gods. Dialogues of the Courtesans

Lucian
MacLeod, M. D.

Lucian (c. 120–190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

432.Cover: Soloecista. Lucius or The Ass. Amores. Halcyon. Demosthenes. Podagra. Ocypus. Cyniscus. Philopatris. Charidemus. Nero

Soloecista. Lucius or The Ass. Amores. Halcyon. Demosthenes. Podagra. Ocypus. Cyniscus. Philopatris. Charidemus. Nero

Lucian
MacLeod, M. D.

Lucian (c. 120–190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

433.Cover: Jewish Antiquities, Volume VIII: Books 18-19

Jewish Antiquities, Volume VIII: Books 18-19

Josephus
Feldman, Louis H.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

434.Cover: Minor Latin Poets, Volume II: Florus. Hadrian. Nemesianus. Reposianus. Tiberianus. Dicta Catonis. Phoenix. Avianus. Rutilius Namatianus. Others

Minor Latin Poets, Volume II: Florus. Hadrian. Nemesianus. Reposianus. Tiberianus. Dicta Catonis. Phoenix. Avianus. Rutilius Namatianus. Others

Duff, J. Wight
Duff, Arnold M.
Avianus
Hadrian
Florus
Nemesianus
Reposianus
Tiberianus
Phoenix
Rutilius Namatianus

Works such as those of the mime-writer Publilius Syrus, who flourished c. 45 BCE, and Rutilius Namatianus, who gave a graphic account of his voyage from Rome to Gaul in 416 CE, represent the wide variety of theme that lends interest to Latin poetry produced during a period of four and a half centuries.

435.Cover: Tetrabiblos

Tetrabiblos

Ptolemy
Robbins, F. E.

In Tetrabiblos, a core text in the history of astrology, the preeminent ancient astronomer Ptolemy (c. 100–178 CE) treats the practical use of astronomical knowledge: making predictions about individuals’ lives and the outcome of human affairs.

436.Cover: Fables

Fables

Babrius
Phaedrus
Perry, Ben Edwin

Babrius’s humorous and pointed fables in Greek verse probably date from the first century CE. From the same period come the lively fables in Latin verse written by Phaedrus, which satirize social and political life in Augustan Rome.

437.Cover: History of Animals, Volume I: Books 1-3

History of Animals, Volume I: Books 1-3

Aristotle
Peck, A. L.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

438.Cover: History of Animals, Volume II: Books 4-6

History of Animals, Volume II: Books 4-6

Aristotle
Peck, A. L.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

439.Cover: History of Animals, Volume III: Books 7-10

History of Animals, Volume III: Books 7-10

Aristotle
Balme, D. M.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384–322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments.

440.Cover: Ennead, Volume I: Porphyry on the Life of Plotinus. Ennead I

Ennead, Volume I: Porphyry on the Life of Plotinus. Ennead I

Plotinus
Armstrong, A. H.

Plotinus (204/5–270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

441.Cover: Ennead, Volume II

Ennead, Volume II

Plotinus
Armstrong, A. H.

Plotinus (204/5–270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

442.Cover: Ennead, Volume III

Ennead, Volume III

Plotinus
Armstrong, A. H.

Plotinus (204/5–270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

443.Cover: Ennead, Volume IV

Ennead, Volume IV

Plotinus
Armstrong, A. H.

Plotinus (204/5–270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

444.Cover: Ennead, Volume V

Ennead, Volume V

Plotinus
Armstrong, A. H.

Plotinus (204/5–270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

445.Cover: Ennead, Volume VI: 1-5

Ennead, Volume VI: 1-5

Plotinus
Armstrong, A. H.

Plotinus (204/5–270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

446.Cover: On Animals, Volume I: Books 1-5

On Animals, Volume I: Books 1-5

Aelian
Scholfield, A. F.

In On the Characteristics of Animals, Aelian (c. 170–after 230 CE) collects facts and fables about the animal kingdom and invites the reader to ponder contrasts between human and animal behavior.

447.Cover: Pro Caelio. De Provinciis Consularibus. Pro Balbo

Pro Caelio. De Provinciis Consularibus. Pro Balbo

Cicero
Gardner, R.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

448.Cover: On Animals, Volume II: Books 6-11

On Animals, Volume II: Books 6-11

Aelian
Scholfield, A. F.

In On the Characteristics of Animals, Aelian (c. 170–after 230 CE) collects facts and fables about the animal kingdom and invites the reader to ponder contrasts between human and animal behavior.

449.Cover: On Animals, Volume III: Books 12-17

On Animals, Volume III: Books 12-17

Aelian
Scholfield, A. F.

In On the Characteristics of Animals, Aelian (c. 170–after 230 CE) collects facts and fables about the animal kingdom and invites the reader to ponder contrasts between human and animal behavior.

450.Cover: Natural Questions, Volume I: Books 1-3

Natural Questions, Volume I: Books 1-3

Seneca
Corcoran, Thomas H.

Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) devotes most of Naturales Quaestiones to celestial phenomena. In Book 1 he discusses fires in the atmosphere; in 2, lightning and thunder; in 3, bodies of water. Seneca’s method is to survey the theories of major authorities on the subject at hand, so his work is a guide to Greek and Roman thinking about the heavens.

451.Cover: Selected Orations, Volume I: Julianic Orations

Selected Orations, Volume I: Julianic Orations

Libanius
Norman, A. F.

Libanius (314–393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

452.Cover: Selected Orations, Volume II: Orations 2, 19-23, 30, 33, 45, 47-50

Selected Orations, Volume II: Orations 2, 19-23, 30, 33, 45, 47-50

Libanius
Norman, A. F.

Libanius (314–393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

453.Cover: Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass), Volume II: Books 7-11

Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass), Volume II: Books 7-11

Apuleius
Hanson, J. Arthur

The Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass) of Apuleius (born c. 125 CE) is a romance combining realism and magic. Lucius wants the sensations of a bird, but by pharmaceutical accident becomes an ass. The bulk of the novel recounts his adventures as an animal, but Lucius also recounts many stories he overhears, including that of Cupid and Psyche.

454.Cover: History of the Empire, Volume I: Books 1-4

History of the Empire, Volume I: Books 1-4

Herodian
Whittaker, C. R.

The History of Herodian (born c. 178–179 CE) is one of the few literary historical sources for the period of the Roman empire from the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (180 CE) to the accession of Gordian III (238), a period in which we can see turbulence and the onset of revolution.

455.Cover: History of the Empire, Volume II: Books 5-8

History of the Empire, Volume II: Books 5-8

Herodian
Whittaker, C. R.

The History of Herodian (born c. 178–179 CE) is one of the few literary historical sources for the period of the Roman empire from the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (180 CE) to the accession of Gordian III (238), a period in which we can see turbulence and the onset of revolution.

456.Cover: Jewish Antiquities, Volume IX: Book 20

Jewish Antiquities, Volume IX: Book 20

Josephus
Feldman, Louis H.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

457.Cover: Natural Questions, Volume II: Books 4-7

Natural Questions, Volume II: Books 4-7

Seneca
Corcoran, Thomas H.

Seneca (c. 4–65 CE) devotes most of Naturales Quaestiones to celestial phenomena. In Book 1 he discusses fires in the atmosphere; in 2, lightning and thunder; in 3, bodies of water. Seneca’s method is to survey the theories of major authorities on the subject at hand, so his work is a guide to Greek and Roman thinking about the heavens.

458.Cover: Apollonius of Tyana, Volume III: Letters of Apollonius. Ancient Testimonia. Eusebius's Reply to Hierocles

Apollonius of Tyana, Volume III: Letters of Apollonius. Ancient Testimonia. Eusebius's Reply to Hierocles

Philostratus
Jones, Christopher P.

In his Life of Apollonius, Philostratus (second to third century CE) portrays a first-century CE teacher, religious reformer, and perceived rival to Jesus. Apollonius’s letters, ancient reports about him, and a letter by Eusebius (fourth century CE) that is now central to the history of Philostratus’s work add to the portrait.

459.Cover: Heros. Theophoroumene. Karchedonios. Kitharistes. Kolax. Koneiazomenai. Leukadia. Misoumenos. Perikeiromene. Perinthia

Heros. Theophoroumene. Karchedonios. Kitharistes. Kolax. Koneiazomenai. Leukadia. Misoumenos. Perikeiromene. Perinthia

Menander
Arnott, W. G.

Menander (?344/3–292/1 BCE), the dominant figure in New Comedy, wrote over 100 plays, of which one complete play, substantial portions of six others, and smaller but interesting fragments have been recovered. The complete play, Dyskolos (The Peevish Fellow), won first prize in Athens in 317 BCE.

460.Cover: Samia. Sikyonioi. Synaristosai. Phasma. Unidentified Fragments

Samia. Sikyonioi. Synaristosai. Phasma. Unidentified Fragments

Menander
Arnott, W. G.

Menander (?344/3–292/1 BCE), the dominant figure in New Comedy, wrote over 100 plays, of which one complete play, substantial portions of six others, and smaller but interesting fragments have been recovered. The complete play, Dyskolos (The Peevish Fellow), won first prize in Athens in 317 BCE.

461.Cover: Greek Lyric, Volume IV: Bacchylides, Corinna, and Others

Greek Lyric, Volume IV: Bacchylides, Corinna, and Others

Campbell, David A.
Bacchylides
Corinna

Bacchylides wrote masterful choral poetry of many types. Other fifth-century BCE lyricists included Myrtis, Telesilla of Argos, Timocreon of Rhodes, Charixena, Diagoras of Melos, Ion of Chios, Praxilla of Sicyon. More of Boeotian Corinna’s (third-century BCE?) poetry survives than that of any other Greek woman poet except Sappho.

462.Cover: Letters to Quintus and Brutus. Letter Fragments. Letter to Octavian. Invectives. Handbook of Electioneering

Letters to Quintus and Brutus. Letter Fragments. Letter to Octavian. Invectives. Handbook of Electioneering

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

The correspondence of Cicero (106–43 BCE) with his brother, Quintus, and with Brutus is a window onto their world. Two invective speeches linked with Cicero are probably anonymous exercises. The Letter to Octavian likely dates from the third or fourth century CE. The Handbook of Electioneering was said to be written by Quintus to Cicero.

463.Cover: Declamations, Volume I: Controversiae, Books 1-6

Declamations, Volume I: Controversiae, Books 1-6

Seneca the Elder
Winterbottom, Michael

Seneca the Elder (?55 BCE–40 CE) collected ten books devoted to controversiae (some only preserved in excerpt) and at least one (surviving) of suasoriae. Extracts from famous declaimers of Seneca’s illuminate influences on the styles of most pagan (and many Christian) writers of the Empire.

464.Cover: Declamations, Volume II: Controversiae, Books 7-10.  Suasoriae. Fragments

Declamations, Volume II: Controversiae, Books 7-10. Suasoriae. Fragments

Seneca the Elder
Winterbottom, Michael

Seneca the Elder (?55 BCE–40 CE) collected ten books devoted to controversiae (some only preserved in excerpt) and at least one (surviving) of suasoriae. Extracts from famous declaimers of Seneca’s illuminate influences on the styles of most pagan (and many Christian) writers of the Empire.

465.Cover: Critical Essays, Volume I: Ancient Orators. Lysias. Isocrates. Isaeus. Demosthenes. Thucydides

Critical Essays, Volume I: Ancient Orators. Lysias. Isocrates. Isaeus. Demosthenes. Thucydides

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Usher, Stephen

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, born c. 60 BCE, aimed in his critical essays to reassert the primacy of Greek as the literary language of the Mediterranean world. They constitute an important development from the somewhat mechanical techniques of rhetorical handbooks to more sensitive criticism of individual authors.

466.Cover: Critical Essays, Volume II: On Literary Composition. Dinarchus. Letters to Ammaeus and Pompeius

Critical Essays, Volume II: On Literary Composition. Dinarchus. Letters to Ammaeus and Pompeius

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Usher, Stephen

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, born c. 60 BCE, aimed in his critical essays to reassert the primacy of Greek as the literary language of the Mediterranean world. They constitute an important development from the somewhat mechanical techniques of rhetorical handbooks to more sensitive criticism of individual authors.

467.Cover: On Great Generals. On Historians

On Great Generals. On Historians

Cornelius Nepos
Rolfe, J. C.

Cornelius Nepos (c. 99–c. 24 BCE) is the earliest biographer in Latin whose work we have. Extant are parts of his De Viris Illustribus, including biographies of mostly Greek military commanders and of two Latin historians, Cato and Atticus.

468.Cover: Ennead, Volume VI: 6-9

Ennead, Volume VI: 6-9

Plotinus
Armstrong, A. H.

Plotinus (204/5–270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

469.Cover: Astronomica

Astronomica

Manilius
Goold, G. P.

In Astronomica (first century CE), the earliest extant treatise we have on astrology, Manilius provides an account of celestial phenomena and the signs of the Zodiac. He also gives witty character sketches of persons born under particular constellations.

470.Cover: Moralia, Volume XIII: Part 2: Stoic Essays

Moralia, Volume XIII: Part 2: Stoic Essays

Plutarch
Cherniss, Harold

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

471.Cover: De Causis Plantarum, Volume I: Books 1-2

De Causis Plantarum, Volume I: Books 1-2

Theophrastus
Einarson, Benedict
Link, George K. K.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370–c. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle’s zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. Books 1 and 2 are concerned with generation, sprouting, flowering and fruiting, and the effects of climate.

472.Cover: Affections. Diseases 1. Diseases 2

Affections. Diseases 1. Diseases 2

Hippocrates
Potter, Paul

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the “Father of Medicine.”

473.Cover: Diseases 3. Internal Affections. Regimen in Acute Diseases

Diseases 3. Internal Affections. Regimen in Acute Diseases

Hippocrates
Potter, Paul

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the “Father of Medicine.”

474.Cover: De Causis Plantarum, Volume II: Books 3-4

De Causis Plantarum, Volume II: Books 3-4

Theophrastus
Einarson, Benedict
Link, George K. K.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370–c. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle’s zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. In Books 3 and 4, Theophrastus studies cultivation and agricultural methods.

475.Cover: De Causis Plantarum, Volume III: Books 5-6

De Causis Plantarum, Volume III: Books 5-6

Theophrastus
Einarson, Benedict
Link, George K. K.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370–c. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle’s zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. In Books 5 and 6, he discusses plant breeding; diseases and other causes of death; and distinctive flavours and odours.

476.Cover: Greek Lyric, Volume III: Stesichorus, Ibycus, Simonides, and Others

Greek Lyric, Volume III: Stesichorus, Ibycus, Simonides, and Others

Campbell, David A.
Stesichorus
Ibycus
Simonides

The most important poets writing in Greek in the sixth century BCE came from Sicily and southern Italy. They included Stesichorus, Ibycus, and Simonides, as well as Arion, Lasus, and Pratinas.

477.Cover: Epidemics 2, 4-7

Epidemics 2, 4-7

Hippocrates
Smith, Wesley D.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the “Father of Medicine.”

478.Cover: Autobiography and Selected Letters, Volume I: Autobiography. Letters 1-50

Autobiography and Selected Letters, Volume I: Autobiography. Letters 1-50

Libanius
Norman, A. F.

Libanius (314–393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

479.Cover: Autobiography and Selected Letters, Volume II: Letters 51-193

Autobiography and Selected Letters, Volume II: Letters 51-193

Libanius
Norman, A. F.

Libanius (314–393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

480.Cover: Epigrams, Volume III: Books 11-14

Epigrams, Volume III: Books 11-14

Martial
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In his epigrams, Martial (c. 40–c. 103 CE) is a keen, sharp-tongued observer of Roman scenes and events, including the new Colosseum, country life, a debauchee’s banquet, and the eruption of Vesuvius. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

481.Cover: Callirhoe

Callirhoe

Chariton
Goold, G. P.

Chariton’s Callirhoe, subtitled “Love Story in Syracuse,” is a fast-paced historical romance of the first century CE and the oldest extant novel.

482.Cover: Places in Man. Glands. Fleshes. Prorrhetic 1-2. Physician. Use of Liquids. Ulcers. Haemorrhoids and Fistulas

Places in Man. Glands. Fleshes. Prorrhetic 1-2. Physician. Use of Liquids. Ulcers. Haemorrhoids and Fistulas

Hippocrates
Potter, Paul

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the “Father of Medicine.”

483.Cover: Fragments

Fragments

Sophocles
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh

Sophocles (497/6–406 BCE), considered one of the world’s greatest poets, forged tragedy from the heroic excess of myth and legend. Seven complete plays are extant, including Oedipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Antigone, and Philoctetes. Among many fragments that also survive is a substantial portion of the satyr drama The Searchers.

484.Cover: Children of Heracles. Hippolytus. Andromache. Hecuba

Children of Heracles. Hippolytus. Andromache. Hecuba

Euripides
Kovacs, David

Euripides (c. 485–406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

485.Cover: Nemean Odes. Isthmian Odes. Fragments

Nemean Odes. Isthmian Odes. Fragments

Pindar
Race, William H.

Pindar (c. 518–438 BCE), highly esteemed as lyric poet by the ancients, commemorates in complex verse the achievements of athletes and powerful rulers at the four great Panhellenic festivals—the Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games—against a backdrop of divine favor, human failure, heroic legend, and aristocratic Greek ethos.

486.Cover: Historical Miscellany

Historical Miscellany

Aelian
Wilson, Nigel G.

Aelian’s Historical Miscellany (Varia Historia) is a pleasurable example of light reading for Romans of the early third century. Offering engaging anecdotes about historical figures, retellings of legendary events, and enjoyable descriptive pieces, Aelian’s collection of nuggets and narratives appealed to a wide reading public.

487.Cover: The Jewish War, Volume II: Books 3-4

The Jewish War, Volume II: Books 3-4

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

488.Cover: Clouds. Wasps. Peace

Clouds. Wasps. Peace

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450–c. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. Socrates’s “Thinkery” is at the center of Clouds, which spoofs untraditional techniques for educating young men. Wasps satirizes Athenian enthusiasm for jury service. Peace is a rollicking attack on war-makers.

489.Cover: Jewish Antiquities, Volume VI: Books 14-15

Jewish Antiquities, Volume VI: Books 14-15

Josephus
Marcus, Ralph
Wikgren, Allen

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

490.Cover: Jewish Antiquities, Volume II: Books 4-6

Jewish Antiquities, Volume II: Books 4-6

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.
Marcus, Ralph

The major works of Josephus (c. 37–after 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

491.Cover: Letters to Atticus, Volume IV

Letters to Atticus, Volume IV

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106–43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

492.Cover: Memorable Doings and Sayings, Volume I: Books 1-5

Memorable Doings and Sayings, Volume I: Books 1-5

Valerius Maximus
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Valerius Maximus compiled his handbook of notable deeds and sayings in the reign of Tiberius (14–37 CE). Valerius’s professedly practical work contains a clear moral element and is informative about first-century CE Roman attitudes toward religion and morality.

493.Cover: Memorable Doings and Sayings, Volume II: Books 6-9

Memorable Doings and Sayings, Volume II: Books 6-9

Valerius Maximus
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Valerius Maximus compiled his handbook of notable deeds and sayings in the reign of Tiberius (14–37 CE). Valerius’s professedly practical work contains a clear moral element and is informative about first-century CE Roman attitudes toward religion and morality.

494.Cover: The Orator's Education, Volume V: Books 11-12

The Orator's Education, Volume V: Books 11-12

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator’s Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

495.Cover: Bacchae. Iphigenia at Aulis. Rhesus

Bacchae. Iphigenia at Aulis. Rhesus

Euripides
Kovacs, David

Euripides (c. 485–406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

496.Cover: Homeric Hymns. Homeric Apocrypha. Lives of Homer

Homeric Hymns. Homeric Apocrypha. Lives of Homer

West, Martin L.

The earliest poems extant under the title Homeric Hymns date from the seventh century BCE. Comic poems in the Homeric Apocrypha include the Battle of Frogs and Mice (probably not earlier than first century CE). Lives of Homer include a version of The Contest of Homer and Hesiod that dates from the second century BCE.

497.Cover: Greek Epic Fragments: From the Seventh to the Fifth Centuries BC

Greek Epic Fragments: From the Seventh to the Fifth Centuries BC

West, Martin L.

Heroic epic of the eighth to the fifth century BCE includes poems about Hercules and Theseus, as well as the Theban Cycle and the Trojan Cycle. Genealogical epic of that archaic era includes poems that create prehistories for Corinth and Samos. These works are an important source of mythological record.

498.Cover: Thebaid, Volume II: Books 8-12. Achilleid

Thebaid, Volume II: Books 8-12. Achilleid

Statius
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius (c. 50–96 CE). His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems. His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid, recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. The extant portion of his Achilleid begins an account of Achilles’s life.

499.Cover: Moralia, Volume XVI: Index

Moralia, Volume XVI: Index

Plutarch
O'Neil, Edward N.

Plutarch (c. 45–120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

500.Cover: The Lesser Declamations, Volume I

The Lesser Declamations, Volume I

Quintilian
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

The Lesser Declamations perhaps date from the second century CE and are perhaps derived from Quintilian. The collection originally consisted of 388 sample cases for legal training. 145 survive. Comments and suggestions the instructor adds to his model speeches for fictitious court cases offer insight into Roman law and education.

501.Cover: The Lesser Declamations, Volume II

The Lesser Declamations, Volume II

Quintilian
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

The Lesser Declamations perhaps date from the second century CE and are perhaps derived from Quintilian. The collection originally consisted of 388 sample cases for legal training. 145 survive. Comments and suggestions the instructor adds to his model speeches for fictitious court cases offer insight into Roman law and education.

502.Cover: Fragments

Fragments

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450–c. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. Over forty of his plays were read in antiquity, from which nearly a thousand fragments survive. These provide a fuller picture of the poet’s comic vitality and a wealth of information and insights about his world.

503.Cover: The Shield. Catalogue of Women. Other Fragments

The Shield. Catalogue of Women. Other Fragments

Hesiod
Most, Glenn W.

Though attributed to Hesiod (eighth or seventh century BCE) in antiquity, the Catalogue of Women, a presentation of legendary Greek heroes and episodes according to maternal genealogy; The Shield, a counterpoint to the Iliadic shield of Achilles; and certain poems that survive as fragments were likely not composed by Hesiod himself.

504.Cover: Fragments: Aegeus-Meleager

Fragments: Aegeus-Meleager

Euripides
Collard, Christopher
Cropp, Martin

Euripides (c. 485–406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

505.Cover: Fragments

Fragments

Aeschylus
Sommerstein, Alan H.

Aeschylus (c. 525–456 BCE) is the dramatist who made Athenian tragedy one of the world’s great art forms. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians, the only extant Greek historical drama. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

506.Cover: Fragments: Oedipus-Chrysippus. Other Fragments

Fragments: Oedipus-Chrysippus. Other Fragments

Euripides
Collard, Christopher
Cropp, Martin

Euripides (c. 485–406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

507.Cover: Philippics 7-14

Philippics 7-14

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

508.Cover: Hellenistic Collection: Philitas. Alexander of Aetolia. Hermesianax. Euphorion. Parthenius

Hellenistic Collection: Philitas. Alexander of Aetolia. Hermesianax. Euphorion. Parthenius

Lightfoot, J. L.

Works by authors such as Philitas of Cos, Alexander of Aetolia, Hermesianax of Colophon, Euphorion of Chalcis and, especially, Parthenius of Nicaea, who composed the mythograpical Sufferings in Love, represent rich inventiveness in Hellenistic prose and poetry from the fourth to the first century BCE.

509.Cover: Coan Prenotions. Anatomical and Minor Clinical Writings

Coan Prenotions. Anatomical and Minor Clinical Writings

Hippocrates
Potter, Paul

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the “Father of Medicine.”

510.Cover: Saturnalia, Volume I: Books 1-2

Saturnalia, Volume I: Books 1-2

Macrobius
Kaster, Robert A.

Macrobius’s Saturnalia, an encyclopedic celebration of Roman culture written in the early fifth century CE, has been prized since the Renaissance as a treasure trove of otherwise unattested lore. Cast in the form of a dialogue it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

511.Cover: Saturnalia, Volume II: Books 3-5

Saturnalia, Volume II: Books 3-5

Macrobius
Kaster, Robert A.

Macrobius’s Saturnalia, an encyclopedic celebration of Roman culture written in the early fifth century CE, has been prized since the Renaissance as a treasure trove of otherwise unattested lore. Cast in the form of a dialogue, it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

512.Cover: Saturnalia, Volume III: Books 6-7

Saturnalia, Volume III: Books 6-7

Macrobius
Kaster, Robert A.

Macrobius’s Saturnalia, an encyclopedic celebration of Roman culture written in the early fifth century CE, has been prized since the Renaissance as a treasure trove of otherwise unattested lore. Cast in the form of a dialogue, it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

513.Cover: Fragments of Old Comedy, Volume I: Alcaeus to Diocles

Fragments of Old Comedy, Volume I: Alcaeus to Diocles

Storey, Ian C.

The era of Old Comedy (c. 485–c. 380 BCE), when theatrical comedy was created and established, is best known through the extant plays of Aristophanes. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis, the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

514.Cover: Fragments of Old Comedy, Volume II: Diopeithes to Pherecrates

Fragments of Old Comedy, Volume II: Diopeithes to Pherecrates

Storey, Ian C.

The era of Old Comedy (c. 485–c. 380 BCE), when theatrical comedy was created and established, is best known through the extant plays of Aristophanes. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis, the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

515.Cover: Fragments of Old Comedy, Volume III: Philonicus to Xenophon. Adespota

Fragments of Old Comedy, Volume III: Philonicus to Xenophon. Adespota

Storey, Ian C.

The era of Old Comedy (c. 485–c. 380 BCE), when theatrical comedy was created and established, is best known through the extant plays of Aristophanes. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis, the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

516.Cover: Method of Medicine, Volume I: Books 1-4

Method of Medicine, Volume I: Books 1-4

Galen
Johnston, Ian
Horsley, G. H. R.

In Method of Medicine, Galen (129–199 CE) provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

517.Cover: Method of Medicine, Volume II: Books 5-9

Method of Medicine, Volume II: Books 5-9

Galen
Johnston, Ian
Horsley, G. H. R.

In Method of Medicine, Galen (129–199 CE) provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

518.Cover: Method of Medicine, Volume III: Books 10-14

Method of Medicine, Volume III: Books 10-14

Galen
Johnston, Ian
Horsley, G. H. R.

In Method of Medicine, Galen (129–199 CE) provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

519.Cover: The Learned Banqueters, Volume VIII: Book 15. General Indexes

The Learned Banqueters, Volume VIII: Book 15. General Indexes

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters, Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work (which dates to the very end of the second century AD) is amusing reading and of extraordinary value as a treasury of quotations from works now lost.

520.Cover: Generation. Nature of the Child. Diseases 4. Nature of Women and Barrenness

Generation. Nature of the Child. Diseases 4. Nature of Women and Barrenness

Hippocrates
Potter, Paul

This volume, the tenth of Hippocrates’ invaluable texts on the practice of medicine in antiquity, provides essential information about human reproduction and reproductive disorders and expounds a general theory of physiology and pathology, in five Greek treatises presented with facing English translation.

521.Cover: Heroicus. Gymnasticus. Discourses 1 and 2

Heroicus. Gymnasticus. Discourses 1 and 2

Philostratus
Rusten, Jeffrey
König, Jason

Philostratus’s writings embody the height of the renaissance of Greek literature in the second century CE. Heroicus is a vineyard conversation about the beauty, continuing powers, and worship of the Homeric heroes. Gymnasticus is the sole surviving ancient treatise on sports, which reshapes conventional ideas about the athletic body.

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