Skip to main content

30% Off New Releases: Explore the List

Harvard University Press - home

Religion as Make-Believe

A Theory of Belief, Imagination, and Group Identity

Neil Van Leeuwen

ISBN 9780674290334

Publication date: 11/21/2023

Request exam copy

To understand the nature of religious belief, we must look at how our minds process the world of imagination and make-believe.

We often assume that religious beliefs are no different in kind from ordinary factual beliefs—that believing in the existence of God or of supernatural entities that hear our prayers is akin to believing that May comes before June. Neil Van Leeuwen shows that, in fact, these two forms of belief are strikingly different. Our brains do not process religious beliefs like they do beliefs concerning mundane reality; instead, empirical findings show that religious beliefs function like the imaginings that guide make-believe play.

Van Leeuwen argues that religious belief—which he terms religious “credence”—is best understood as a form of imagination that people use to define the identity of their group and express the values they hold sacred. When a person pretends, they navigate the world by consulting two maps: the first represents mundane reality, and the second superimposes the features of the imagined world atop the first. Drawing on psychological, linguistic, and anthropological evidence, Van Leeuwen posits that religious communities operate in much the same way, consulting a factual-belief map that represents ordinary objects and events and a religious-credence map that accords these objects and events imagined sacred and supernatural significance.

It is hardly controversial to suggest that religion has a social function, but Religion as Make-Believe breaks new ground by theorizing the underlying cognitive mechanisms. Once we recognize that our minds process factual and religious beliefs in fundamentally different ways, we can gain deeper understanding of the complex individual and group psychology of religious faith.


  • This brilliant and controversial book reframes our understanding of faith. Van Leeuwen captures the complex nature of faith commitments accurately and with deft philosophical insight. He sees what people do—not what they think they do.

    —T. M. Luhrmann, author of How God Becomes Real: Kindling the Presence of Invisible Others


  • Neil Van Leeuwen is Associate Professor of Philosophy and Neuroscience at Georgia State University and a recipient of the European Commission’s Marie Curie Fellowship. His research has been featured in the New York Times and The Atlantic and on NPR.

Book Details

  • 312 pages
  • 6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches
  • Harvard University Press