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City of Debtors

City of Debtors

A Century of Fringe Finance

Anne Fleming

ISBN 9780674976238

Publication date: 01/08/2018

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Since the rise of the small-sum lending industry in the 1890s, people on the lowest rungs of the economic ladder in the United States have been asked to pay the greatest price for credit. Again and again, Americans have asked why the most fragile borrowers face the highest costs for access to the smallest loans. To protect low-wage workers in need of credit, reformers have repeatedly turned to law, only to face the vexing question of where to draw the line between necessary protection and overreaching paternalism.

City of Debtors shows how each generation of Americans has tackled the problem of fringe finance, using law to redefine the meaning of justice within capitalism for those on the economic margins. Anne Fleming tells the story of the small-sum lending industry’s growth and regulation from the ground up, following the people who navigated the market for small loans and those who shaped its development at the state and local level. Fleming’s focus on the city and state of New York, which served as incubators for numerous lending reforms that later spread throughout the nation, differentiates her approach from work that has centered on federal regulation. It also reveals the overlooked challenges of governing a modern financial industry within a federalist framework.

Fleming’s detailed work contributes to the broader and ongoing debate about the meaning of justice within capitalistic societies, by exploring the fault line in the landscape of capitalism where poverty, the welfare state, and consumer credit converge.


  • Fleming’s fascinating, carefully researched study reveals the pivotal role New York played in the development of consumer-credit regulation. New York might be an outlier in the twenty-first century, but at the turn of the twentieth century, when small-sum loans originated, every major thread was connected to the events and personalities of New York.

    —Ronald J. Mann, author of Bankruptcy and the U.S. Supreme Court


  • 2019, Winner of the Ralph Gomory Prize
  • 2019, Winner of the ACCFSL Writing Competition


  • Anne Fleming was Professor of Law at the Georgetown University Law Center.

Book Details

  • 376 pages
  • 6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches
  • Harvard University Press