In Republic vs. Autocracy, Andrzej Kaminski analyzes a pivotal period in the relationship between two Eastern European powers. By this time Poland-Lithuania had lost control of East-Bank Ukraine and Kiev to Russia, and saw the election of a Saxon king to the Polish crown. While Russia was growing stronger in the international sphere, Poland-Lithuania had begun a decline that would eventually lead to the ever-increasing absorption of its territories by its adversaries. This book concentrates on the diplomatic relationship between the two powers as witnessed by the records of the respective offices responsible for foreign affairs. Particular attention is paid to the residences maintained in Warsaw and Moscow. Kaminski shows how Poland-Lithuania and Russia perceived each other, and how the fate of Ukraine and the balance of power in Eastern Europe were decisively altered during these years.