Cover: To Become a God: Cosmology,  Sacrifice, and Self-Divinization in Early China, from Harvard University PressCover: To Become a God in PAPERBACK

Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series 57

To Become a God

Cosmology, Sacrifice, and Self-Divinization in Early China

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$25.00 • £20.95 • €22.50

ISBN 9780674016439

Publication Date: 05/01/2004

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  • Introduction
    • Secondary Scholarship
    • Method of Analysis
    • Outline
  • 1. Anthropomorphizing the Spirits: Sacrifice and Divination in Late Bronze Age China
    • The Foundations of Chinese Cosmological and Bureaucratic Thought
    • The Agon of Humans and Spirits in the Late Shang
    • Placing the Ancestors: The Construction of the Shang Pantheon
    • Transforming the Spirits: Sacrifice in the Shang
    • A Moral Cosmos: The Zhou Conquest and the Mandate of Heaven
    • Pacifying the Spirits: Western Zhou Sacrificial Practice
    • The Art of the Sacrifice: The “Sheng min” Poem of the Shijing and Hesiod’s Theogony
    • Conclusion
  • 2. Gaining the Powers of Spirits: The Emergence of Self-Divinization Claims in the Fourth Century BC
    • Spirits Within Humans: The Issue of Shamanism in Early China and Early Greece
    • Humans and Gods in Early Greece
    • Comparing China and Greece
    • Humans and Gods in Early China
    • Heaven and Man in the Lunyu
    • The Moral Cosmos of the Mohists
    • Separating Humans and Spirits and Dividing Heaven and Earth: The “Chu yu, xia” Chapter of the Guoyu
    • Becoming Like a Spirit: The “Neiye” Chapter of the Guanzi
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Accepting the Order of Heaven: Humanity and Divinity in Zhuangzi and Mencius
    • “Nothing Can Overcome Heaven”: The Notion of Spirit in the Zhuangzi
    • The Resignation of the Sage to the Order of Heaven: The Cosmology of the Mencius
    • The “Naturalism” of Zhuangzi and Mencius
  • 4. Descendants of the One: Correlative Cosmology in the Late Warring States
    • The One and the Many: Secondary Scholarship on Early Chinese Cosmology
    • Totemism and Sacrifice: From Granet to Lévi Strauss and Back Again
    • The Great Unity of the Cosmos: The Taiyi sheng shui
    • Becoming an Ancestor to the People: The Laozi
    • Using the One to Explore Heaven: The Shiliujing
    • Becoming a Spirit: The “Xinshu” Chapters of the Guanzi
    • Becoming Like Heaven: The Lūshi chunqiu
    • The Pattern of Heaven and Earth: The Xunzi
    • Submitting to the Trigrams: The Xici zhuan
    • Conclusion
  • 5. The Ascension of the Spirit: Liberation, Spirit Journeys, and Celestial Wanderings
    • How to Read the Ascension Literature
    • The Liberation of the Spirit: Question Four of the Shiwen
    • Liberation and Ascension in the Outer Chapters of the Zhuangzi
    • Transcending Heaven and Earth: The “Yuan you” of the Chuci
    • Conclusion
  • 6. A Theocracy of Spirits: Theism, Theomorphism, and Alchemy in the Qin and Early Han Empires
    • Kingship and Sacrifice: From Granet to Dumézil and Back Again Through Sahlins
    • Competing Cosmologies in the Qin and Early Han
    • Emperors and Gods in the Early Imperial Courts
    • The Ascension of Huangdi: Divine Kingship in the Qin and Early Han
    • The Order of Textual Authority: Lu Jia’s Xinyu
    • Conclusion
  • 7. Aligning and Orienting the Cosmos: Anthropomorphic Gods and Theomorphic Humans in the Huainanzi
    • Following the Way: The “Yuandao” Chapter
    • The Ascensions of Huangdi and Fu Xi: The “Lanming” Chapter
    • A Cosmos Aligned by Spirits: The “Jingshen” Chapter
    • Conclusion
  • 8. The Sacrifices That Order the World: Divine Kingship and Human Kingship in the Western Han
    • The Sacrifices of the Sage: Dong Zhongshu
    • The “Fengshan shu” Chapter of Sima Qian
    • Determining the Position of Heaven and Earth: The Ritual Reforms at the End of the Western Han
    • Conclusion
  • Conclusion: Culture and History in Early China
  • Reference Matter
    • Bibliography
    • Index

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