Cover: Gene Sharing and Evolution: The Diversity of Protein Functions, from Harvard University PressCover: Gene Sharing and Evolution in HARDCOVER

Gene Sharing and Evolution

The Diversity of Protein Functions

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Product Details


$90.00 • £72.95 • €81.00

ISBN 9780674023413

Publication Date: 02/28/2007


336 pages

6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches

30 color illustrations, 11 line illustrations


  • List of Illustrations
  • Preface
  • 1. What Is “Gene Sharing”?
    • New Functions for Old Proteins and the Question of Gene Duplication
    • Origin of the Term “Gene Sharing”
    • Gene Sharing: General Definition and Implications
    • Protein Location and Gene Regulation
    • Why the Term “Gene Sharing”?
    • Mechanisms for Diversifying Gene Functions
    • Posttranslational Modifications
    • Conditions for Initiating Gene Sharing
    • Contrasting Phenotype with Protein Function
    • Take-Home Message
  • 2. Multifunctions and Functional Shifts: Echos from the Past
    • Preadaptation, Prospective Adaptation, and Hopeful Monsters
    • Quirky Functional Shifts and Exaptation
    • Spandrels and Gene Sharing
    • Gene Regulation and Tinkering
    • Take-Home Message
  • 3. The Elusive Concept of a “Gene”
    • The Classical Gene Concept
    • The Mendel-Morgan Chromosomal Theory of the Gene
    • Later Developments: One Gene/One Enzyme/One Polypeptide
    • The Molecular Era of the Gene: So Much Data, So Many Possibilities
    • Quantifying Genes before the Molecular Era
    • Quantifying Genes in the Molecular Era: Fewer than Expected
    • Noncoding Regulatory Genes
    • Protein Diversity
    • The Ambiguous Gene
    • The “Molecular Gene” Concept
    • The “Molecular Process Gene” Concept
    • The “Evolutionary Gene” Concept
    • Two Concepts for One Gene: Gene-P/Gene-D
    • Gene Sharing: A Concept Incorporating an “Open Gene”
    • Take-Home Message
  • 4. Eyes and Lenses: Gene Sharing by Crystallins
    • Eye Diversity: Many Forms to Perform a Function
    • The Lens
    • Crystallins and the Optical Properties of the Lens
    • Diversity and Taxon-Specificity of Lens Crystallins
    • Crystallins Are Borrowed Proteins
    • The bg-Crystallins: A Superfamily with Distant Stress Connections
    • The Enzyme-Crystallins of Vertebrates
    • Crystallins of Invertebrates
    • Crystallin Gene Regulation in Vertebrates: A Similar Cast of Transcription Factors
    • Convergent Evolution of Crystallin Gene Expression
    • Evolutionary Dynamism of shsp/aB-Crystallin Gene Expression
    • Convergent Evolution of Invertebrate and Vertebrate Crystallin Promoters
    • Potential for Lens-Specific Promoter Activity
    • Convergent Evolution and Relaxed Stringency for Crystallins
    • Take-Home Message
  • 5. The Enigmatic “Corneal Crystallins”: Putative Cases of Gene Sharing
    • The Cornea
    • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: A Candidate Corneal Crystallin
    • Other Candidate Corneal Crystallins: Transketolase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, and Cyclophilin
    • Adseverin: A Corneal Crystallin in Zebrafish
    • A Signaling Role for Adseverin
    • Corneal Gene Expression
    • The Refracton Hypothesis: Implications for Gene Sharing
    • Take-Home Message
  • 6. Gene Sharing As a Common Event: Many Multifunctional Proteins
    • Glycolytic Enzymes and the Versatile Hexokinases
    • Citrate Synthase: An Enzyme and a Cytoskeletal Structure
    • Lactate Dehydrogenase: An Enzyme for All Seasons
    • Regulation of mRNA Translation by Enzyme Binding
    • Glyceraldehye-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase: Constant Surprises
    • Enolase: Another Versatile Protein
    • Bacterial Surface Enzymes
    • Xanthine Oxidoreductase: Enzyme and Envelope
    • The Thioredoxin/Ribonucleotide Reductase System and Thioredoxin Family Members: From Redox to Morphogenesis
    • Serum Albumin: Transport Protein, Enzymatic Vasodilator and Detoxifier
    • Gelsolin: Roles in Cytoskeletal Structure, Gene Expression, Cell Death, and Signal Transduction
    • Cytochrome c: Roles in Electron Transport, Cell Death, and Light Filtration
    • Take-Home Message
  • 7. Gene Sharing during Gene Expression
    • Complexity of Transcription
    • Nuclear Receptors
    • Metabolic Enzymes and Gene Expression
    • Y-Box Proteins
    • Transcription Factors as Translational Regulators: Bicoid
    • Translation Factors for RNA Export: eIF4
    • Homeoproteins, Chromosomal Proteins and Actin
    • The Dynamic Flux of Nuclear Proteins
    • Take-Home Message
  • 8. Gene Sharing As a Dynamic Evolutionary Process: Antifreeze Proteins and Hemoglobins
    • Antifreeze Proteins
    • Hemoglobins
    • Take-Home Message
  • 9. Gene Duplication and the Evolution of New Functions
    • Gene Duplication and Retention of Redundant Genes
    • Birth and Death of Duplicated Genes
    • Adaptive Evolution by Positive Selection: New Functions after Gene Duplication
    • Subfunctionalization and Gene Sharing
    • Rapid Subfunctionalization with Slow Neofunctionalization
    • Gene Sharing Is Independent of Gene Duplication
    • Lens Crystallins: Gene Sharing at Different Stages of Duplication
    • Take-Home Message
  • 10. Gene Sharing and Systems Biology: Implications and Speculations
    • Networks
    • Evolvability
    • Selective Pressure Affecting Gene Regulation
    • Functional Switching and the Notion of Functional “Trespassing”
    • Functional Noise
    • Genetic Differences in Levels of Gene Expression
    • The Molecular Clock
    • Gene Knockout Experiments
    • Gene Deletion of b-Catenin
    • Horizontal Gene Transfer
    • Take-Home Message
  • 11. Recapitulations: Ambiguities and Possibilities
    • Ambiguity of Cause and Effect
    • Natural Selection Versus Random Drift
    • Gene Sharing and Robustness: When Is a Mutation Neutral?
    • Inconsistency with Design
    • Naming Is Not Knowing
    • The Question of Tissue Homology
    • Phylogenetic Trees: The Complication of Function
    • Defining and Counting Genes
    • Definition of Polypeptide Function: The Ambiguity of Molecular Mechanism
    • Between Genotype and Phenotype
    • Gene Sharing and the Importance of Research on Diverse Species
    • Medical Implications
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Index

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