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Social, Political, and Religious

Gustave de Beaumont

Edited and translated by W. C. Taylor

Introduction by Tom Garvin

Andreas Hess

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$31.00 • £24.95 • €28.00

ISBN 9780674025394

Publication Date: 09/30/2007

Academic Trade

448 pages

1 map

Belknap Press


  • Translator’s Preface
  • Historical Introduction
    • First Epoch: From 1169 to 1535
      • Chap. I
        • Sect. 1. Political Condition of Ireland in the Twelfth Century
        • Sect. 2. The Still Recent Invasion of the Danes
        • Sect. 3. Influence of the Court of Rome
      • Chap. II
        • Sect. 1. Political Condition of the Irish an Obstacle to the Conquest
        • Sect. 2. Second Obstacle to the Completion of the Conquest: The Relation of the Anglo-Norman Conquerors to England, and of England to Them
        • Sect. 3. Third Obstacle to the Conquest: The Condition Imposed on the Natives by the Conquerors
    • Second Epoch: From 1535 to 1690
      • Chap. I: Religious Wars
        • Sect. 1. How, When England Became Protestant, It Must Have Desired That Ireland Should Become So Likewise
        • Sect. 2. Of the Causes That Prevented Ireland from Becoming Protestant
        • Sect. 3. How England Rendered Ireland Protestant—Protestant Colonisation—Elizabeth and James I
        • Sect. 4. Protestant Colonisation—Charles I
        • Sect. 5. Civil War—The Republic—Cromwell
        • Sect. 6. The Restoration of Charles II
    • Third Epoch: From 1688 to 1755
      • Chap. I: Legal Persecution
      • Chap. II: The Penal Laws
        • Special Character of the Penal Laws
        • Another Special Character of the Penal Laws
        • Legal Persecution beyond the Limits of the Law
        • Persecutions Continued When Passions Ceased
        • Which of the Penal Laws Were Executed, Which Not
        • The Whiteboys
    • Fourth Epoch: From 1776 to 1829: Revival and Enfranchisement of Ireland
      • Chap. I: Effects of American Independence on Ireland
        • Sect. 1. First Reform of the Penal Laws, 1778
        • Sect. 2. Second Effect of American Independence on Ireland (1778 to 1779)—The Irish Volunteers
        • Sect. 3. Independence of the Irish Parliament
        • Sect. 4. Legal Consequences of the Declaration of Irish Independence
        • Sect. 5. Abolition of Certain Penal Laws—Consequences of the Declaration of Parliamentary Independence
        • Sect. 6. Continuation of the Volunteer Movement—Convention of 1783
        • Sect. 7. Corruption of the Irish Parliament
        • Sect. 8. Is a Servile Parliament of Any Use?
      • Chap. II: The French Revolution—Its Effects in Ireland
        • Sect. 1. 1789
        • Sect. 2. Other Effects of the French Revolution—Abolition of Penal Laws
        • Sect. 3. Other Consequences of the French Revolution—Reaction
        • Sect. 4. French Invasion of Ireland—Insurrection of 1798—Consequences of the Insurrection of 1798—The Union—Constitutional and Political Effect of the Union
      • Chap. III: Catholic Emancipation in 1829
  • Part I
      • Chap. I: External Appearance of Ireland. Misery of Its Inhabitants
      • Chap. II: A Bad Aristocracy Is the Primary Cause of All the Evils of Ireland. The Faults of This Aristocracy Are, That It Is English and Protestant
        • Sect. 1. Civil Consequences
          • Subsect. 1. Extreme Misery of the Farmers—Accumulation of the Population on the Soil—Absenteeism&mdsah;Middlemen—Rack-Rents—Want of Sympathy between Landlord and Tenant
          • Subsect. 2. Competition for Land—Whiteboyism—Social Evils—Inutility of Coercive Measures—Terror in the Country—Disappearance of Landlords and Capital
        • Sect. 2. Political Consequences
          • Subsect. 1: The State—Hatred of the People to the Laws—A Public Accuser Wanting in Ireland—Unanimity of the Jury in Ireland—Legal Functionaries Peculiar to Ireland
          • Subsect. 2: The County
          • Subsect. 3: Municipal Corporations
          • Subsect. 4: The Parish
          • Judicial Authority
        • Sect. 3. Religious Consequences
          • Legal and Official Establishment of Protestant Worship in the Midst of Catholic Ireland—The University and the Protestant Schools
      • Chap. III: Tithes
        • Resistance to the Payment of Tithes
      • Chap. IV: The North of Ireland
      • Chap. V: Irish Character
      • Chap. VI: Illusions of the Irish Aristocracy
  • Part II (Annexed to Part I in the Translation): How Ireland Has Resisted Oppression
      • Chap. VII: How Ireland Tends to Democracy
        • Sect. 1. The Association
        • Sect. 2. O’Connell
        • Sect. 3. The Catholic Clergy
        • Sect. 4. The Presbyterians
        • Sect. 5. The Middle Classes
        • Sect. 6. On the State of Parties in Ireland
  • Part III
      • Chap. I: The Three Principal Remedies That Have Been Proposed for the Evils of Ireland
        • Sect. 1. Increase of Industrial Employment
        • Sect. 2. Emigration
        • Sect. 3. Poor Laws
      • Chap. II: Remedies Proposed by the Author—The Civil, Political, and Religious Privileges of the Aristocracy Must Be Abolished
      • Chap. III: It Would Be an Evil to Substitute a Catholic Aristocracy for the Protestant Aristocracy
      • Chap. IV: How the Irish Aristocracy Should Be Abolished
        • Sect. 1. Necessity of Centralisation
        • Sect. 2. Necessity of Rendering the People Landed Proprietors
          • Subsect. 1: State of Landed Property in England
          • Subsect. 2: State of Landed Property in Ireland
          • Subsect. 3: Entails in England and Ireland
          • Subsect. 4: Primogeniture in England
        • Sect. 3. Means of Abolishing the Religious Privileges of the Aristocracy
          • Subsect. 1: Supremacy of the Anglican Church
          • Subsect. 2: Payment of the Catholic Clergy
          • Subsect. 3: Equality of All Creeds
  • Part IV
      • Chap. I: What Will England Do?
      • Chap. II: Relations of English Parties to Ireland
        • Sect. 1. The Tory Party
        • Sect. 2. The Radical Party
        • Sect. 3. The Whig Party
          • Subsect. 1: Whig Reforms of Religious Privileges
          • Subsect. 2: Whig Reforms of Civil Privileges
          • Subsect. 3: Whig Reforms of Political Privileges
      • Chap. III: General Survey of the State of Ireland
        • Final Reflections
  • Preface, 1863: A Report on the Present State of Ireland (1862–1863)
  • Chronology
  • Index

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