Cover: German Idealism: The Struggle against Subjectivism, 1781–1801, from Harvard University PressCover: German Idealism in PAPERBACK

German Idealism

The Struggle against Subjectivism, 1781–1801

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$41.00 • £35.95 • €37.95

ISBN 9780674027176

Publication Date: 03/31/2008

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752 pages

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  • Introduction
    • 1. Realism in German Idealism
    • 2. Exorcising the Spirit
    • 3. The Critique of Foundationalism
    • 4. The Troublesome Hegelian Legacy
    • 5. The Taxonomy of German Idealism
  • I. Kant’s Critique of Idealism
    • Introduction: Kant and the Problem of Subjectivism
      • 1. The Clash of Interpretations
      • 2. Method and Results
      • 3. Contemporary Kant Scholarship
    • 1. Idealism in the Precritical Years
      • 1. The Idealist Challenge
      • 2. The First Refutation of Idealism
      • 3. Idealist Dreams and Visions
      • 4. The Critique of Idealism in the Inaugural Dissertation
      • 5. Skeptical Ambivalence
      • 6. David Hume, Transcendental Realist
    • 2. Transcendental Idealism and Empirical Realism
      • 1. The Case for Subjectivism
      • 2. The First Edition Definitions of Transcendental Idealism
      • 3. Transcendental versus Empirical Idealism
      • 4. Empirical Realism in the Aesthetic
      • 5. Empirical Realism and Empirical Dualism
    • 3. The First Edition Refutation of Skeptical Idealism
      • 1. The Priority of Skeptical Idealism
      • 2. The Critique of the Fourth Paralogism
      • 3. The Proof of the External World
      • 4. A Cartesian Reply
      • 5. Appearances and Spatiality
      • 6. The Ambiguity of Transcendental Idealism
      • 7. The Coherence of Transcendental Idealism
    • 4. The First Edition Refutation of Dogmatic Idealism
      • 1. The Missing Refutation
      • 2. Kant’s Interpretation of Leibniz
      • 3. The Dispute in the Aesthetic
      • 4. Dogmatic Idealism in the Antinomies
    • 5. Kant and Berkeley
      • 1. The Göttingen Review
      • 2. Kant’s Reaction
      • 3. Berkeleyianism in the First Edition of the Kritik
      • 4. The Argument of the Prolegomena
      • 5. Kant’s Interpretation of Berkeley
      • 6. The Small but Real Differences?
    • 6. The Second Edition Refutation of Problematic Idealism
      • 1. The Problem of Interpretation
      • 2. Kant’s Motives
      • 3. The Question of Kant’s Realism
      • 4. Realism in the Refutation
      • 5. The New Strategy
      • 6. The Argument of the Refutation
      • 7. Outer vis-à-vis Inner Sense
      • 8. Kant’s Refutations in the Reflexionen, 1788-93
    • 7. Kant and the Way of Ideas
      • 1. The Theory of Ideas
      • 2. Loyalty and Apostasy
      • 3. The Transcendental versus the Subjective
      • 4. The Question of Consistency
      • 5. The Doctrine of Inner Sense
      • 6. Kantian Self-Knowledge and the Cartesian Tradition
    • 8. The Transcendental Subject
      • 1. Persistent Subjectivism
      • 2. Eliminating the Transcendental Subject
      • 3. The Criteria of Subjectivity
      • 4. The Subjectivity of the Transcendental
      • 5. Restoring the Transcendental Subject
    • 9. The Status of the Transcendental
      • 1. The Problematic Status of the Categories
      • 2. The Metaphysial Interpretation
      • 3. The Psychological Interpretation
      • 4. The Logical Interpretation
      • 5. The Ineliminable Psychological Dimension
      • 6. Problems of Transcendental Psychology
      • 7. Transcendental Psychology and Transcendental Idealism
    • 10. Kant’s Idealism in the Opus postumum
      • 1. Kant’s Peruke
      • 2. The Gap in the Critical System
      • 3. The Transition Program and Its Implications
      • 4. The Transition and Refutation
      • 5. The Selbstsetzungslehre
      • 6. Appearance of Appearance: Continuity with Critical Doctrines
      • 7. Appearance of Appearance: Its Novelty
      • 8. The Thing-in-Itself
  • II. Fichte’s Critique of Subjectivism
    • Introduction: The Interpretation of Fichte’s Idealism
    • 1. Fichte and the Subjectivist Tradition
      • 1. The Challenge of Subjectivism
      • 2. Early Critique of Reinhold
      • 3. The Discovery of Desire
      • 4. The Primacy of Practical Reason
      • 5. Fichte’s Foundationalism?
    • 2. The Battle against Skepticism
      • 1. First Doubts
      • 2. The Aenesidemus Review
      • 3. Maimon’s Skepticism
      • 4. The Official Response
      • 5. The Final Line of Defense
    • 3. Criticism versus Dogmatism
      • 1. The Transformation of the Kantian Problematic
      • 2. The Two Systems
      • 3. The Refutation of Dogmatism
      • 4. Fichte and the Thing-in-Itself
    • 4. Freedom and Subjectivity
      • 1. The Meaning of Freedom
      • 2. The Theory of Subjectivity
      • 3. Woes of the Absolute Ego
      • 4. The Two Egos
    • 5. Knowledge of Freedom
      • 1. The Break with Kant
      • 2. A Philosophy of Striving
      • 3. The Origins of Intellectual Intuition
      • 4. The Meaning of Intellectual Intuition
      • 5. Fichte versus Kant on Intellectual Intuition
      • 6. Self-Knowledge and Freedom
      • 7. Faith in Freedom
    • 6. Critical Idealism
      • 1. Problems of Idealism
      • 2. The Role of Striving
      • 3. The Synthesis of Idealism and Realism
      • 4. Reintroducing and Reinterpreting the Thing-in-Itself
    • 7. The Refutation of Idealism
      • 1. Later Arguments against Idealism
      • 2. The Fichtean versus Kantian Refutation
      • 3. Problems of Exposition
      • 4. The Deduction of the External World
    • 8. The Structure of Intersubjectivity
      • 1. Kant versus Fichte on the Problem of Other Minds
      • 2. First Reflections
      • 3. The Argument for Intersubjectivity
      • 4. The Normative Structure of Intersubjectivity
  • III. Absolute Idealism
    • 1. Absolute Idealism: General Introduction
      • 1. The Dramatis Personae
      • 2. The Meaning of Absolute Idealism
      • 3. Absolute versus Critical Idealism
      • 4. The Break with Critical Idealism
      • 5. Intellectual Sources
      • 6. The Rehabilitation of Metaphysics
      • 7. The Aesthetics of Absolute Idealism
    • 2. Hölderlin and Absolute Idealism
      • 1. Philosophy versus Poetry
      • 2. Sources of Absolute Idealism
      • 3. The Critique of Fichte
      • 4. Aesthetic Sense
      • 5. The Concept of Nature
      • 6. Philosophy in Literature
    • 3. Novalis’ Magical Idealism
      • 1. Novalis and the Idealist Tradition
      • 2. Fichte Studies
      • 3. Fichte in Novalis’ Idealism
      • 4. The Elements of Magical Idealism
      • 5. Syncriticism
      • 6. Models of Knowledge
    • 4. Friedrich Schlegel’s Absolute Idealism
      • 1. Philosophy, History, and Poetry
      • 2. The Break with Fichte
      • 3. An Antifoundationalist Epistemology
      • 4. Romanticism and Absolute Idealism
      • 5. The Mystical
      • 6. Lectures on Transcendental Idealism
  • IV. Schelling and Absolute Idealism
    • Introduction: The Troublesome Schellingian Legacy
    • 1. The Path toward Absolute Idealism
      • 1. The Fichte-Schelling Alliance
      • 2. Early Fault Lines
      • 3. An Independent Standpoint
      • 4. The First Quarrel
    • 2. The Development of Naturphilosophie
      • 1. The Claims of Naturphilosophie
      • 2. The Early Fichtean Phase
      • 3. The First Decisive Step
      • 4. The Priority of Naturphilosophie
    • 3. Schelling’s Break with Fichte
      • 1. Background
      • 2. The Dispute Begins
      • 3. Schelling States His Case
      • 4. A Botched Reconciliation
      • 5. Persistent Hopes
      • 6. The Irresolvable Differences
    • 4. Problems, Methods, and Concepts of Naturphilosophie
      • 1. Absolute Idealism and Naturphilosophie
      • 2. The Problematic of Naturphilosophie
      • 3. Rethinking Matter
      • 4. Nature as Organism
      • 5. Regulative or Constitutive?
      • 6. The Methodology of Naturphilosophie
    • 5. Theory of Life and Matter
      • 1. The Spinozism of Physics
      • 2. The Dynamic Construction of Matter
      • 3. The Theory of Life
      • 4. Irritability, Sensibility, and World Soul
      • 5. The Mental and Physical as Potencies
    • 6. Schelling’s Absolute Idealism
      • 1. The Blinding Light of 1801
      • 2. Objective Idealism
      • 3. The Kantian-Fichtean Interpretation
      • 4. The Interpretation of Subject-Object Identity
    • 7. The Dark Night of the Absolute
      • 1. The Dark Parmenidian Vision
      • 2. The Dilemma of Absolute Knowledge
      • 3. Rethinking the Absolute
      • 4. The Fall
    • 8. Absolute Knowledge
      • 1. In Defense of Speculation
      • 2. The Strategy for the Defense
      • 3. Intellectual Intuition
      • 4. Fichte versus Schelling on Intellectual Intuition
      • 5. Art versus Philosophy
      • 6. The Method of Construction
      • 7. Head over Heels into the Absolute?
      • 8. The Paradox of Absolute Knowledge
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Index

Awards & Accolades

  • Second Prize, 2003 Napoleonic Studies Literary Prize, International Napoleonic Society

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