THE CHARLES ELIOT NORTON LECTURES
Cover: Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition, Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition, from Harvard University PressCover: Space, Time and Architecture in PAPERBACK

Space, Time and Architecture

The Growth of a New Tradition, Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition

  • Introduction: Architecture of the 1960s: Hopes and Fears
  • Part I: History a Part of Life
    • Introduction
    • The Historian’s Relation to His Age
    • The Demand for Continuity
    • Contemporary History
    • The Identity of Methods
    • Transitory and Constituent Facts
    • Architecture as an Organism
    • Procedure
  • Part II: Our Architectural Inheritance
    • The New Space Conception: Perspective
    • Perspective and Urbanism
      • Prerequisites for the Growth of Cities
      • The Star-Shaped City
    • Perspective and the Constituent Elements of the City
      • The Wall, the Square, and the Street
      • Bramante and the Open Stairway
      • Michelangelo and the Modeling of Outer Space
      • What Is the Real Significance of the Area Capitolina?
    • Leonardo da Vinci and the Dawn of Regional Planning
    • Sixtus V (1585–1590) and the Planning of Baroque Rome
      • The Medieval and the Renaissance City
      • Sixtus V and His Pontificate
      • The Master Plan
      • The Social Aspect
    • The Late Baroque
    • The Undulating Wall and the Flexible Ground Plan
      • Francesco Borromini, 1599–1667
      • Guarino Guarini, 1624–1683
      • South Germany: Vierzehnheiligen
    • The Organization of Outer Space
      • The Residential Group and Nature
      • Single Squares
      • Series of Interrelated Squares
  • Part III: The Evolution of New Potentialities
    • Industrialization as a Fundamental Event
    • Iron
      • Early Iron Construction in England
      • The Sunderland Bridge
      • Early Iron Construction on the Continent
    • From the Iron Column to the Steel Frame
      • The Cast-Iron Column
    • Toward the Steel Frame
      • James Bogardus
      • The St. Louis River Front
      • Early Skeleton Buildings
      • Elevators
    • The Schism between Architecture and Technology
      • Discussions
      • École Polytechnique: the Connection between Science and Life
      • The Demand for a New Architecture
      • The Interrelations of Architecture and Engineering
    • Henri Labrouste, Architect Constructor, 1801–1875
    • New Building Problems—New Solutions
      • Market Halls
      • Department Stores
    • The Great Exhibitions
      • The Great Exhibition, London, 1851
      • The Universal Exhibition, Paris, 1855
      • Paris Exhibition of 1867
      • Paris Exhibition of 1878
      • Paris Exhibition of 1889
      • Chicago, 1893
    • Gustave Eiffel and His Tower
  • Part IV: The Demand for Morality in Architecture
    • The Nineties: Precursors of Contemporary Architecture
      • Brussels the Center of Contemporary Art, 1880–1890
      • Victor Horta’s Contribution
      • Berlage’s Stock Exchange and the Demand for Morality
      • Otto Wagner and the Viennese School
    • Ferroconcrete and Its Influence upon Architecture
      • A. C. Perret
      • Tony Gamier
  • Part V: American Development
    • Europe Observes American Production
    • The Structure of American Industry
    • The Balloon Frame and Industrialization
      • The Balloon Frame and the Building-up of the West
      • The Invention of the Balloon Frame
      • George Washington Snow, 1797–1870
      • The Balloon Frame and the Windsor Chair
    • Plane Surfaces in American Architecture
      • The Flexible and Informal Ground Plan
    • The Chicago School
      • The Apartment House
    • Toward Pure Forms
      • The Leiter Building, 1889
      • The Reliance Building, 1894
      • Sullivan: The Carson, Pirie, Scott Store, 1889–1906
      • The Influence of the Chicago World’s Fair, 1893
    • Frank Lloyd Wright
      • Wright and the American Development
      • The Cruciform and the Elongated Plan
      • Plane Surfaces and Structure
      • The Urge toward the Organic
      • Office Buildings
      • Influence of Frank Lloyd Wright
      • Frank Lloyd Wright’s Late Period
  • Part VI: Space-Time in Art, Architecture, and Construction
    • The New Space Conception: Space-Time
      • Do We Need Artists?
    • The Research into Space: Cubism
      • The Artistic Means
    • The Research into Movement: Futurism
    • Painting Today
    • Construction and Aesthetics: Slab and Plane
      • The Bridges of Robert Maillart
      • Afterword
    • Walter Gropius and the German Development
      • Germany in the Nineteenth Century
      • Walter Gropius
      • Germany after the First World War and the Bauhaus
      • The Bauhaus Buildings at Dessau, 1926
      • Architectural Aims
    • Walter Gropius in America
      • The Significance of the Post-1930 Emigration
      • Walter Gropius and the American Scene
      • Architectural Activity
      • Gropius as Educator
      • Later Development
      • American Embassy in Athens, 1956–1961
    • Le Corbusier and the Means of Architectonic Expression
      • The Villa Savoie, 1928–1930
      • The League of Nations Competition, 1927: Contemporary Architecture Comes to the Front
      • Large Constructions and Architectural Aims
      • Social Imagination
      • The Unité d’Habitation, 1947–1952
      • Chandigarh
      • Later Work
      • The Carpenter Center for Visual Arts, Harvard University, 1963
      • Le Corbusier and His Clients
      • The Priory of Ste. Marie de la Tourette, 1960
      • The Legacy of Le Corbusier
    • Mies van der Rohe and the Integrity of Form
      • The Elements of Mies van der Rohe’s Architecture
      • Country Houses, 1923
      • The Weissenhof Housing Settlement, Stuttgart, 1927
      • The Illinois Institute of Technology, 1939
      • High-rise Apartments
      • Office Buildings
      • On the Integrity of Form
    • Alvar Aalto: Irrationality and Standardization
      • Union between Life and Architecture
      • The Complementarity of the Differentiated and the Primitive
      • Finnish Architecture before 1930
      • Aalto’s First Buildings
      • Paimio: The Sanatorium, 1929–1933
      • The Undulating Wall
      • Sunila: Factory and Landscape, 1937–1939
      • Mairea, 1938–1939
      • Organic Town Planning
      • Civic and Cultural Centers
      • Furniture in Standard Units
      • Aalto as Architect
      • The Human Side
    • Jørn Utzon and the Third Generation
      • Relations to the Past
      • Jørn Utzon
      • The Horizontal Plane as a Constituent Element
      • The Right of Expression: The Vaults of the Sydney Opera House
      • Empathy with the Situation: The Zurich Theater, 1964
      • Sympathy with the Anonymous Client
      • Imagination and Implementation
    • The International Congresses for Modern Architecture (CIAM) and the Formation of Contemporary Architecture
  • Part VII: City Planning in the Nineteenth Century
    • Early Nineteenth Century
    • The Rue de Rivoli of Napoleon I
    • The Dominance of Greenery: The London Squares
    • The Garden Squares of Bloomsbury
    • Large-Scale Housing Development: Regent’s Park
    • The Street Becomes Dominant: The Transformation of Paris, 1853–1868
      • Paris in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
      • The “Trois Réseaux” of Eugène Haussmann
      • Squares, Boulevards, Gardens, and Plants
      • The City as a Technical Problem
      • Use of Modern Methods of Finance
      • The Basic Unit of the Street
      • The Scale of the Street
      • Haussmann’s Foresight: His Influence
  • Part VIII: City Planning as a Human Problem
    • The Late Nineteenth Century
    • Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City
    • Patrick Geddes and Arturo Soria y Mata
    • Tony Gamier’s Cité Industrielle, 1901–1904
    • Amsterdam and the Rebirth of Town Planning
      • H. P. Berlage’s Plans for Amsterdam South
      • The General Extension Plan of Amsterdam, 1934
      • Interrelations of Housing and Activities of Private Life
  • Part IX: Space-Time in City Planning
    • Contemporary Attitude toward Town Planning
    • Destruction or Transformation?
    • The New Scale in City Planning
      • The American Parkway in the Thirties
      • High-rise Buildings in Open Space
      • Freedom for the Pedestrian
      • The Civic Center: Rockefeller Center, 1931–1939
    • Changing Notions of the City
      • City and State
      • The City: No Longer an Enclosed Organism
      • Continuity and Change
      • The Individual and Collective Spheres
      • Signs of Change and of Constancy
  • Part X: In Conclusion
    • On the Limits of the Organic in Architecture
    • Politics and Architecture
  • Index

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