Cover: China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia, from Harvard University PressCover: China Marches West in PAPERBACK

China Marches West

The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia

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$27.00 • £23.95 • €24.95

ISBN 9780674057432

Publication Date: 09/30/2010


752 pages

53 halftones, 10 maps, 3 line illustrations, 16 tables

Belknap Press


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  • List of Maps*
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Note on Names, Dates, Weights and Measures, and Chinese Characters
    • Introduction
      • History, Time, and Memory
      • The Qing Conquests as a World Historical Event
  • I. The Formation of the Central Eurasian States
    • 1. Environments, State Building, and National Identity
      • The Unboundedness of Central Eurasia
      • Trade, Transport, and Travel
      • The Frontier Zone
      • Isolation and Integration
    • 2. The Ming, Muscovy, and Siberia, 1400–1600
      • The Ming and the Mongols
      • State Formation in Muscovy and Russian Expansion
      • Siberian and Chinese Frontiers
    • 3. Central Eurasian Interactions and the Rise of the Manchus, 1600–1670
      • Building the Zunghar State
      • The Rise of the Manchus
      • Mongolian Influence on the Manchu State
      • Early Modern State Building Compared
  • II. Contending for Power
    • 4. Manchus, Mongols, and Russians in Conflict, 1670–1690
      • Kangxi the Ruler
      • Galdan’s Intervention
      • Kangxi’s First Personal Expedition
      • The Treaty of Nerchinsk and the Excluded Middle
    • 5. Eating Snow: The End of Galdan, 1690–1697
      • The Dolon Nor Assembly
      • The Battle of Jao Modo
      • The Emperor Rewrites History
      • The Final Campaigns and the Fate of Galdan
    • 6. Imperial Overreach and Zunghar Survival, 1700–1731
      • The Rise of Tsewang Rabdan
      • Three Central Eurasian Travelers
      • The Penetration of Turkestan and Tibet
      • The New Emperor Changes Tack
    • 7. The Final Blows, 1734–1771
      • Transforming the Barbarians through Trade
      • The Death Knell of the Zunghar State
      • The Conquest of Turkestan
      • The Return of the Torghuts
  • III. The Economic Basis of Empire
    • 8. Cannons on Camelback: Ecological Structures and Economic Conjunctures
      • Galdan the State Builder
      • Nian Gengyao and the Incorporation of Qinghai
      • Administering the Frontier
    • 9. Land Settlement and Military Colonies
      • Deportation from Turfan
      • Settlement of Xinjiang
      • Colonization and Land Clearance
      • Economic Development
    • 10. Harvests and Relief
      • Harvests and Yields
      • Granary Reserves
      • The Contribution Scandal
      • The Relief Campaign of 1756
    • 11. Currency and Commerce
      • Money on the Frontier, from Song through Ming
      • Integration and Stabilization
      • Commerce as a Weapon of War
      • Tribute and Frontier Trade
  • IV. Fixing Frontiers
    • 12. Moving through the Land
      • Travel and Authority
      • Marking Space in Stone
      • Maps and Power
      • Expanding the Imperial Gaze
    • 13. Marking Time: Writing Imperial History
      • Kangxi’s Campaign History
      • Yongzheng and the Dayi Juemilu
      • Qianlong’s Account of the Zunghar Mongols
      • A View from the Frontier
      • Nomadic Chronicles
  • V. Legacies and Implications
    • 14. Writing the National History of Conquest
      • Statecraft Writers and Empire
      • Geopolitics and Emperor Worship
      • Chinese Historians and the Multicultural State
      • Soviet and Mongolian Attacks on Qing Aggression
      • Empires, Nations, and Peoples
    • 15. State Building in Europe and Asia
      • The Political Ecology of Frontier Conquest
      • European, Chinese, and Inner Asian Models
      • Theories of Nomadic Empires
      • Rethinking the Qing in the World
    • 16. Frontier Expansion in the Rise and Fall of the Qing
      • The End of the Qing State
      • Northwest and Southern Frontiers
      • The Negotiated State
      • Commercialization and Regionalization
  • Appendixes
    • A. Rulers and Reigns
    • B. The Yongzheng Emperor Reels from the News of the Disaster, 1731
    • C. Haggling at the Border
    • D. Gansu Harvests and Yields
    • E. Climate and Harvests in the Northwest
  • Abbreviations
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Illustration Credits
  • Index
  • * Maps
    • 1. The Qing empire, ca. 1800
    • 2. The Zunghar empire
    • 3. Ecological zones of Eurasia
    • 4. Tribal peoples and Russian settlements in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    • 5. The Sino–Russian frontier
    • 6. The Kangxi emperor’s Zunghar campaigns, 1690–1697
    • 7. The Qianlong emperor’s western campaigns, 1755–1760
    • 8a. Grain price integration in Gansu, 1739–1864
    • 8b. Grain price integration in Gansu with famine years omitted, 1739–1864
    • 9. Grain price integration in Xinjiang, 1777–1860

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