Cover: Living at Micro Scale: The Unexpected Physics of Being Small, from Harvard University PressCover: Living at Micro Scale in PAPERBACK

Living at Micro Scale

The Unexpected Physics of Being Small

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Product Details

PAPERBACK

$30.00 • £24.95 • €27.00

ISBN 9780674060210

Publication Date: 03/04/2011

Short

448 pages

6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches

97 line illustrations, 23 tables, 2 boxes

World

  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables and Boxes
  • Preface
  • List of Symbols and Abbreviations
    • 1 Introduction
      • Origins
      • Size Matters
      • Universal Assumptions
  • I Background
    • 2 Microscopy
      • Invention
        • Eyeglasses
        • Microscopes
      • Observation
        • Structure of Tissues
        • Microscopic Organisms
        • Brownian Motion
      • Bacteria
        • Characterizations
        • Classifications
        • Measurements
        • Sizes
        • Shapes
        • Adaptations
    • 3 Fluids
      • Some History
      • Viscosity
      • Basic Theory
      • The Reynolds Number
        • Concept
        • Examples
      • Creeping Flow
        • Simplicity of Flow
        • Flow through Tubes
        • Flow around Cylinders
      • Slow&nash;Moving Spheres
        • Stokes’ Law for Speed
        • Frictional Coefficient
        • Deviations
        • Interactions
    • 4 Molecules
      • The Atomic View of Matter
      • Gas Laws
      • Chance Breakthroughs
        • Probability
        • Normal Distribution
        • Poisson Distribution
      • The Kinetic Theory
      • Avogadro’s Number
      • Diffusion
      • Osmotic Pressure
      • Perspective
    • 5 Brownian Motion
      • Observations
      • Theory
      • Experimental Tests
      • Random Walks
        • A Model of Diffusion
        • Constrained Angles
      • Perspective
    • 6 Ellipsoids
      • Plots of Ellipsoidal Shape Parameters
        • Contours
        • Special Plots
      • Calculations
      • Translation
        • Translational Friction Coefficients
        • Translational Diffusion Coefficient
      • Rotation
        • Rotational Friction Coefficient
        • Rotational Diffusion Coefficient
        • Rotational Time Constant
    • 7 Information
      • Shannon’s Concepts
      • Signal-to-Noise Ratio
      • Noise Is Ubiquitous
      • What Is Information?
      • Perspective
    • 8 Energy
      • Energy Flows
      • Power Density
      • Speed of Swimming
  • II Physical Consequences
    • 9 Chemical Transport
      • Flow
      • Diffusion Faster Than Flow at Small Scale
      • Diffusion Faster in Gas Than Liquid 144
      • Diffusion from Sources
        • Instantaneous Source
        • Steady Point Source
        • Steady Line Source
      • Diffusion to Sinks
        • Stationary Sink
        • Moving Sink
        • Distributed Sinks
      • Nutrients and Waste
    • 10 Signal Detection
      • Time and Size Are Important
        • Light
        • Chemicals
        • Temperature
      • Orientation Information
        • Rotational Brownian Motion Limits Time for Detection
        • Magnetic Bacteria
        • Size for Detecting Gravity
  • III Consequences for Locomotion
    • 11 Dispersal
      • The Importance of Dispersal
      • Dispersal by Diffusion
      • Effect of Shape on Brownian Motion
      • Dispersal by Random Swimming
        • Size
        • Shape
      • Dispersal by Collimated Swimming
    • 12 Sedimentation
      • Speed
        • Composition
        • Size
        • Shape
      • Orientation
        • Inclination
        • Gliding
      • Asymmetric Density
        • Rotation
        • Opposing Rotational Brownian Motion
      • Consequences
        • Enhancing Nutrient Uptake
        • Loss of Light and Oxygen
    • 13 Swimming
      • Resistance to Movement
      • Propulsion
        • Motion of a Propulsive Appendage
        • Shape of a Propulsive Appendage
        • Cilia and Flagella of Eukaryotes
        • Flagella of Prokaryotes
        • Rotation
        • Mechanical Efficiency
      • Helical Swimming Paths
      • Useful Distance to Move
  • IV Consequences for Orientation to Stimulus Gradients
    • 14 Gradient Guiding
      • Environmental Gradients
      • Determination of Direction
        • Gradient Decay Length
        • S/N for Gradient Determination
        • Spatial Comparison
        • Temporal Comparison
      • Response
    • 15 Size Limit for Locomotion
      • Minimum Signal-to-Noise Ratio
        • Chemical Gradients
        • Light Gradients
        • Heat Gradients
        • Light Direction
      • Comparisons
        • Condensed Formulas
        • Plots
      • Overview
    • 16 Optimal Shapes
      • Nutrient Uptake
      • Locomotion
        • Dispersal
        • Sedimentation
        • Swimming Efficiency
      • Orientation
        • Gradient Guiding
        • Light Direction
      • Comparison
        • Predictions
        • Observations
  • V Consequences for Interactions between Organisms
    • 17 Encounter Rates
      • Collision Theory
      • Search Theory
      • Encounter Rates in Three Dimensions
        • Straight Movement
        • Diffusion
      • Encounter Distances
      • Overview
    • 18 Predation
      • Modifying Factors
      • Community Structure
        • Maximal Predation
        • Minimal Predation
        • Combined Theory
        • Size of Top Predator
        • Viruses
      • Waste
        • Flux
        • Size Limit
        • Discrete Elimination
    • 19 Pheromone Attraction
      • Flux
      • Search Rates
      • Pheromone Use
    • 20 Gametes
      • The Problem
      • The Gamete Model
        • Density
        • Speed
      • Gamete Encounter Rates
        • Isogamy and Anisogamy: Encounter by Contact
        • Oogamy: Encounter by Pheromone
      • Pheromone Use
      • Male and Female
  • Summary
  • Appendix 1. Approximation Rules
  • Appendix 2. Calculus
    • Derivatives
    • Integrals
  • Appendix 3. Acceleration of Plates
  • Appendix 4. Justifications
    • Criterion of Incompressible Flow
    • Reynolds Number of Brownian Motion
  • Appendix 5. Sedimentation Equilibrium
  • Appendix 6. Ellipsoid Mathematics
    • Description
      • Curvature
      • Plots
    • Surface Area
    • Hydrodynamic Calculations
      • Translation
      • Rotation
      • Appendix 7. Bending Beams
      • Appendix 8. Chemical Potential Energy
        • Water
        • Ions
      • Appendix 9. Calculation of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio
        • S/N for Chemical Gradient
          • Temporal Comparison
          • Spatial Comparison
        • S/N for Light
          • Light Gradients
          • Light Direction
      • Appendix 10. Calculating Flow Velocities
        • Flow around Point Sources and Sinks
        • Flow around a Solid Sphere
        • Flow around a Gas Bubble
      • Appendix 11. High Reynolds Numbers: Navier-Stokes Equations
        • Continuity
        • Momentum
        • Viscosity
      • Appendix 12. Drag
      • Notes
      • References

Awards & Accolades

  • 2010 Georgia Author of the Year Award, Specialty Book Category, Georgia Writers Association
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