Cover: The Bible As It Was, from Harvard University PressCover: The Bible As It Was in PAPERBACK

The Bible As It Was

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PAPERBACK

$38.50 • £30.95 • €34.50

ISBN 9780674069411

Publication Date: 11/01/1999

Short

696 pages

6-1/2 x 10 inches

24 halftones

Belknap Press

World

  • Preface
  • The World of Ancient Biblical Interpreters
  • The Creation of the World
    • Wisdom Came First
    • The “Beginning” Did It
    • A Special Light
    • The Angels Were Also Created
    • God and Someone Else
    • Completed on Friday
  • Adam and Eve
    • Death in a Day
    • The Punishment Was Mortality
    • Sinfulness is Hereditary
    • The Serpent Was Satan
    • Blame It on the Woman
    • An Extra Proviso
    • The Earthly Paradise
    • The Garden in Heaven
  • Cain and Abel
    • Son of the Devil
    • Cain’s Sisters
    • Professions Decided
    • Defective Sacrifices
    • The Problem Was the Sacrificer
    • The Good and the Bad
    • Killed with a Stone
    • God Knew Where Abel Was
    • Cain’s Sevenfold Punishment
    • Cain’s Repentance
  • Noah and the Flood
    • Cain Was the Worst
    • The Immortal Enoch
    • The Heavenly Scribe
    • Enoch the Sage
    • Enoch the Penitent
    • A Bad Match
    • The Wicked Giants
    • One Hundred and Twenty until Punishment
    • Noah Warned of the Flood
    • Noah the Righteous
    • Only in His Generation
    • The Animals Also Sinned
    • The Purifying Flood
  • The Tower of Babel
    • They Tried to Storm Heaven
    • A War against God
    • Nimrod Built It
    • The Builders Were Giants
    • The Tower Lies in Ruins
  • Abraham Journeys from Chaldea
    • Abraham the Monotheist
    • Terah, Priest of Idolatry
    • Abraham the Astronomer
    • Tipped Off by the Stars
    • Abraham Rescued from Chaldea
    • Abraham Saved from Fire
    • Abraham Was Upset
    • Abraham’s Dream
  • Melchizedek
    • A Generous Host
    • Righteous King and Priest
    • Divinely Appointed High Priest
    • The Heavenly Melchizedek
    • The Christian “Order of Melchizedek”
    • An Uncircumcised Priest?
    • Melchizedek in Samaria
    • Melchizedek Was Shem
    • Services No Longer Needed
  • The Trials of Abraham
    • Abraham the Tested
    • Abraham Saw a Dire Future
    • Challenged by Angels
    • God Made It Known
    • Isaac Was a Willing Victim
    • Together in Mind
    • Offering Foreshadowed Crucifixion
  • Lot and Lot’s Wife
    • Lot the Righteous
    • Lot the Wicked
    • Sodomites’ Sexual Sins
    • The Proud and the Stingy
    • Abraham’s Hospitality
    • Lot Learned from Abraham
    • Lot’s Wife Sinned
    • A Visible Reminder
    • Lot’s Daughters Meant Well
  • Jacob and Esau
    • Jacob Was Not Just “Simple”
    • Jacob the Scholar
    • Esau the Wicked
    • Good and Evil in Utero
    • Esau the Warrior
    • Esau Means Rome
    • Esau the Deceiver
    • Esau Didn’t Care
    • Jacob Told the Truth
    • God Wanted Jacob to be Blessed
    • The Ladder Was a Message
    • Angels Wanted to See Him
  • Jacob and the Angel
    • Jacob Knew Right Away
    • Deluded in the Dark
    • Additional Trickery Required
    • Weak, Bleary Eyes
    • “Nice Eyes, But…”
    • God Multiplied Jacob’s Flocks
    • Rachel Was Not a Crook
    • Jacob Struggled with an Angel
    • Mighty with God’s Help
    • Israel Means Seeing God
  • Dinah
    • Uncontrolled Anger
    • Shechem Deserved Death
    • Foreigners Are Different
    • Intermarriage Is Forbidden
    • A Wise Answer
    • The Whole City Was Guilty
    • City with a Criminal Past
    • God Said No
    • God Ordered Their Destruction
    • Dinah Married Job
  • Joseph’s Ups and Downs
    • It’s a Wise Child
    • Eating from the Flocks
    • Resembled Jacob in All Things
    • Deeds of Youthful Foolishness
    • For the Price of Shoes
    • Joseph’s Great Virtue
    • A Very Handsome Man
    • Girls Climbing the Walls
    • Cast Down Their Jewelry
    • Joseph Was Not Tempted
    • Remembered Jacob’s Teachings
    • Saw Jacob’s Face
    • A Collective Accusation
    • Pharaoh’s Servants Applauded
    • Joseph Had Been Disdained
  • Jacob’s Sons in Egypt
    • A Good Reason for Concealing
    • Joseph Tested His Brothers
    • Joseph Disdained Revenge
    • Reuben Lost His Inheritance
    • Bilhah Bathing
    • Bilhah Was Asleep
    • Jacob Foretold the Future
    • Kingship Will Not Depart
    • Forever
    • Another King Will Come
    • Until a New King Comes
    • A Ruler of the World
    • Why Did Joseph Put It Off?
  • Growing Up in Pharaoh’s Court
    • A Plan to Finish Them Off
    • Why Only the Boys?
    • A Future Savior
    • Jannes and Jambres
    • Balaam, Job, and Jethro
    • Death by Water
    • Schooled in Every Wisdom
    • Moses’ Speech Defect
    • Jealous of Moses
    • Zipporah the Ethopian
    • Miraculously Burning Bush
    • The Medium Was the Message
    • “I Am the One Who Is…”
    • “I Am the Eternal…”
    • An Angel in the Hotel
    • Circumcision Delayed Is Circumcision Denied
    • A Prenuptial Agreement
  • The Exodus from Egypt
    • A Godlike Man
    • No Mere Magician’s Trick
    • Pharaoh Didn’t Realize
    • Divine Punishment of the Egyptians
    • Deservedly Punished by Water
    • A Dark Dungeon for Egypt
    • Metaphorical Darkness
    • Justifiable Death for the Firstborn
    • Egyptians Gave Willingly
    • Fair Wages at Last
    • The Symbolic Passover Laws
    • The (Paschal) Lamb of Christianity
  • The Red Sea
    • Pillar of Luminous Cloud
    • Protective Covering
    • An Angel in the Cloud
    • Final Payment
    • Get Back Our Goods!
    • Rebellion at the Sea
    • More than One Miracle
    • A Grassy Plain
    • Miraculous Timing
    • If Looks Could Kill
    • Light and Dark Together
    • Ups and Downs of the Egyptians
    • Red Sea as Baptism
    • How Did They Know the Words?
    • Seeing God at the Sea
    • Infants Sang Too
    • Miriam’s Separate Song
    • A New Song
  • Into the Wilderness
    • Water, Water…
    • A Symbolic Tree
    • The Water Was Divine Wisdom
    • The Food of the Angels
    • Heavenly Grain
    • Adapted to Any Taste
    • Spiritual Sustenance
    • The Traveling Rock
    • Miriam’s Well
    • Amalek Destroyed at the End-Time
    • The Symbolic Hands of Moses
    • The Christian Battle with Amalek
    • Jethro the Polytheist
    • Jethro the Good
  • At Mt. Sinai
    • Heaven on Earth
    • Celestial Sinai
    • Heavenly Moses
    • God Spoke All Ten
    • God Spoke Only Two
    • The Ten Were All
    • The Decalogue Epitomizes
    • Five and Five
    • Which Ten Commandments?
    • No Talk of Weekday Matters
    • Guard the Sabbath Borders
    • Do Not Go Out Too Far
    • Do Not Take Vain Oaths
    • No False Oaths
    • Honor Your Heavenly and Earthly Fathers
    • A Mishap to the Baby
    • A Mishap to the Mother
    • Money for an Eye
    • Traditions of the Elders
    • Moses Was Given More than the Torah
    • Oral Teachings from Moses
    • A Hidden Torah
    • Moses’ Secret Book
    • A Book before Moses
    • Children of the Chosen
    • Singled Out from the Start
    • Other Nations Knew Anyway
    • Other Nations at Fault
    • Remember This Blood
  • The Golden Calf
    • A Celestial Sanctuary
    • Copied from Heaven
    • A Likeness of the Universe
    • Aaron Tried to Stop Them
    • Aaron Feared for His Life
    • Hur Murdered by the Rabble
    • The Letters Flew Off
    • Tables Became Too Heavy
    • Divine Traits of Character
    • Steadfast Love for Thousands of Generations
    • No Pardon for the Wicked
    • Thousands of Sins Forgiven
    • Moses’ Face Beamed Light
    • Moses Grew Horns
  • Worship in the Wilderness
    • An Error in Priestly Procedure
    • A Holy Death
    • Coats Not Burned
    • Control of Appetites
    • Ruminating with One’s Mind
    • Gentle Birds for Gentle People
    • Day of Repentance
    • The Day of Partial Atonement
    • Hatred Means Hypocrisy
    • Reproach Prevents Hatred
    • Reproach Gently to Prevent Sin
    • Reproach before Charging
    • Love As You Would Be Loved
    • Love Only Your Neighbor
    • The Whole Torah
  • Trouble along the Way
    • Quails Weren’t for Grousing
    • A Wife Related to Prophecy
    • Trusted Servant Par Excellence
    • Whose Bad Idea?
    • Solemnly Warned
    • Tassels Set Off Revolt
    • Moses Accused of Favoritism
    • Moses Was Polite
    • Korah’s Symbolic Death
    • A Truly Dangerous Figure
    • Aaron’s Symbolic Staff
  • The Bronze Serpent, Balaam, and Phinehas
    • Looking Didn’t Cure
    • Serpent Was Like Moses’ Hands
    • Balaam the Wicked
    • God Knew Who They Were
    • A Prophet for Hire
    • Balaam Foresaw the Messiah
    • A Ruler of the World
    • The Star Is the Messiah
    • The Star Will Precede the Scepter
    • Balaam Counseled Seduction
    • A Leader among Priests
    • Phinehas the Immortal
    • Phinehas Is Elijah
  • The Life of Torah
    • The Great Teaching
    • These Words Twice a Day
    • A Particular Prophet
    • Do Not Displace Old Practices
    • Necessary Paperwork
    • No Divorce—Except for Indecency
    • Any Old Reason Is Valid
    • Don’t Muzzle Me
    • Small Commandments as Important as Big
    • Torah Refines (Like Fire)
    • The Gift of the Torah
    • Not in Heaven Anymore
    • A Choice for Each Person
    • A Choice of Two Paths
    • Nice Road at First
    • The Path to the Afterlife
    • Consider Heaven and Earth
    • Heaven and Earth Were Already Witnesses
    • Moses Did Not Want to Die
    • Moses Disputed with an Angel
    • Moses’ Last Vision
    • Buried by God (or the Angels)
    • Buried under a Cloud
    • Not Buried at All
    • The Supreme Philosopher
  • Afterword
  • Abbreviations
  • Terms and Sources
  • Bibliography
  • Illustration Credits
  • Index

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