Cover: China’s Response to the West in PAPERBACK

China’s Response to the West

A Documentary Survey, 1839–1923, With a New Preface

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Product Details

PAPERBACK

$41.00 • £32.95 • €37.00

ISBN 9780674120259

Publication Date: 12/19/1979

Short

308 pages

6 x 9 inches

World

  • Reigns of the Ch’ing (Manchu) Dynasty
  • I. The Problem and Its Background
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Some Elements in the Chinese Intellectual Tradition
      • a. Some Early Ch’ing “Nationalist” Thinkers
      • b. The Early Jesuit Influence in China
      • c. The Attitude of the Ch’ing Court toward the Westerners
  • II. Recognition of China’s Need to Know the West, 1839–1860
    • 3. Commissioner Lin’s Program for Meeting British Aggression
      • Doc. 1. Lin Tse-hsü’s Moral Advice to Queen Victoria, 1839
      • Doc. 2. A Letter of Lin Tse-hsü Recognizing Western Military Superiority, 1842
      • Doc. 3. Wei Yuan’s Statement of a Policy for Maritime Defense, 1842
      • Doc. 4. Cantonese Denunciation of the British, 1841
    • 4. The Policy of Conciliation
      • Doc. 5. Ch’i-ying’s Method for Handling the Barbarians, 1844
      • Doc. 6. Hsü Chi-yü’s Acceptance of Western Geography, 1848
    • 5. The Emergence of the Theory of Self-Strengthening
      • a. Prince Kung and the Tsungli Yamen
        • Doc. 7. The New Foreign Policy of January 1861
      • b. Feng Kuei-fen and His Essays
        • Doc. 8. On the Adoption of Western Knowledge
        • Doc. 9. On the Manufacture of Foreign Weapons
        • Doc. 10. On the Better Control of the Barbarians
      • c. The Taiping Rebels’ Interest in Modernization
        • Doc. 11. Hung Jen-kan’s Proposals, 1859
  • III. The Desire for Western Technology, 1861–1870
    • 6. Tseng Kuo-fan’s Attitude toward Westerners and Their Machinery
      • Doc. 12. Excerpts from Tseng’s Letters, 1862
      • Doc. 13. Founding the Shanghai Arsenal
      • Doc. 14. Tseng’s Views on Treaty Revision, 1867
    • 7. Li Hung-chang and the Use of Western Arms
      • Doc. 15. Li’s Letter to Tseng Kuo-fan on the Ever-Victorious Army, February 1863
      • Doc. 16. Li’s Recommendation of Western Military Methods, June 1863
      • Doc. 17. The Tsungli Yamen Memorial of June 1863 on China’s Defensive Strategy
    • 8. Institutions for Linguistic and Scientific Studies (The T’ung-wen Kuan)
      • Doc. 18. Li i-Hung-chang’s Support of Western Studies, 1863
      • Doc. 19. Wo-jen’s Objection to Western Learning, 1867
      • Doc. 20. The Tsungli Yamen’s Rebuttal, 1867
    • 9. Tso Tsung-t’ang and the Foochow Shipyard
      • Doc. 21. Tso’s Plans of 1866
  • IV. Efforts at Self-Strengthening, 1871–1896
    • 10. The Problem of Leadership: Personalities and Institutions
      • a. Li Hung-chang and His Subordinates
      • b. The Empress Dowager’s Influence
        • Doc. 22. Wen-hsiang’s Warning of Disaster, 1874
    • 11. Training Students Abroad
      • a. The Educational Mission to the United States
        • Doc. 23. The Proposal of Tseng and Li in 1871
        • Doc. 24. Letters of Li Hung-chang concerning the End of the Mission, 1880–1881
      • b. Students in Europe
        • Doc. 25. Ma Chien-chung’s Report on his Studies in France, 1877
    • 12. Diplomatic Missions Abroad
      • Doc. 26. Prince Kung’s Discovery of International Law, 1864
      • Doc. 27. A Letter of Kuo Sung-tao from London, 1877
      • Doc. 28. Tseng Chi-tse’s Account of his Audience with the Empress Dowager, 1878
    • 13. Problems of the Industrialization Effort
        • Doc. 29. Li Hung-chang’s Defense of Building Steamships, 1872
      • a. The Principle of “Government-supervision and Merchant-operation”
        • Doc. 30. The Criticisms of Cheng Kuan-ying, c. 1892
      • b. The Debate over Railroads
        • Doc. 31. Shen Pao-chen’s Purchase of the Shanghai-Wusung Railway, 1876
        • Doc. 32. Hsueh Fu-ch’eng’s Support of Railroad Building, 1878
    • 14. The Attempt at a Positive Foreign Policy
        • Doc. 33. Kuo Sung-tao on the Futility of a War Policy, 1884
      • a. Building a Modern Navy
        • Doc. 34. Chang P’ei-lun’s Proposal of 1884
      • b. The Failure at Self-Strengthening
        • Doc. 35. Li Hung-chang’s Conversation with Itō Hirobumi, 1895
      • c. The Alliance with Russia
        • Doc. 36. Liu K’un-i’s Secret Proposal, July 1895
        • Doc. 37. Chang Chih-tung’s Memorial of August 1895
        • Doc. 38. Text of the Sino–Russian Secret Treaty of 1896
  • V. The Reform Movement through 1900
    • 15. Promoters of Institutional Change
      • a. The Missionary Influence
      • b. Early Chinese Advocates of Reform
        • Doc. 39. Writings of Wang T’ao
        • Doc. 40. Essays of Hsueh Fu-ch’eng
    • 16. K’ang Yu-wei and Some of His Associates
      • Doc. 41. K’ang Yu-wei’s Statement for the “Society for the Study of Self-strengthening,” 1895
      • Doc. 42. Liang Ch’i-ch’ao on Reform, 1896
      • Doc. 43. T’an Ssu-t’ung on the Need for Complete Westernization
      • Doc. 44. Wang K’ang-nien on Democracy
    • 17. The Reform Program of Chang Chih-tung
      • Doc. 45. Selections from Chang’s “Exhortation to Study,” 1898
    • 18. The Failure of 1898
      • a. The Court and the Emperor
        • Doc. 46. K’ang Yu-wei’s Conversation with the Emperor, June 1898
        • Doc. 47. Itō’s Conversation with the Emperor, September 1898
      • b. The Conservative Opposition
    • 19. The Boxer Uprising
      • Doc. 48. Proclamations of the Boxers
      • Doc. 49. Memorials of Anti-Boxer Martyrs, 1900
  • VI. Reform and Revolution, 1901–1912
    • 20. The Conservative Reform Movement
      • a. The Post-Boxer Program
        • Doc. 50. The Joint Proposals of Liu K’un-i and Chang Chih-tung, 1901
      • b. Educational Reform
        • Doc. 51. A Memorial of Chang Chih-tung and Yuan Shih-k’ai Urging Abolition of the Old Examinations, 1903
      • c. Constitutionalism
        • Doc. 52. A Report on Constitutional Governments Abroad, 1906
      • d. Yuan Shih-k’ai and the Modern Army
    • 21. Economic Development
      • Doc. 53. Sheng Hsuan-huai’s Argument for Government Banking, 1896
      • Doc. 54. Economic Views of Chang Chien
    • 22. Liang Ch’i-ch’ao and Nationalism
      • Doc. 55. “The Renovation of the People” by Liang Ch’ich’ao, 1902
    • 23. Sun Yat-sen’s Early Revolutionary Program
      • Doc. 56. The Manifesto of the T’ung-meng-hui, 1905
  • VII. Ideological Ferment and the May Fourth Movement, 1912–1923
    • 24. The Search for New Principles
      • a. The Variety of the New Thought
      • b. Ts’ai Yuan-p’ei and Freedom in Education
        • Doc. 57. Ts’ai Yuan-p’ei’s Views on the Aims of Education, 1912
        • Doc. 58. Ts’ai Yuan-p’ei’s Policy for Peking University, 1919
    • 25. Early Converts to Marxism
      • Doc. 59. Ch’en Tu-hsiu’s “Call to Youth,” 1915
      • Doc. 60. Li Ta-chao, “The Victory of Bolshevism,” November 15, 1918
      • Doc. 61. Ch’en Tu-hsiu’s Argument for Historical Materialism, 1923
    • 26. Hu Shih and Pragmatism in China
      • Doc. 62. Hu Shih, “The Significance of the New Thought,” 1919
      • Doc. 63. Hu Shih, “On the Literary Revolution,” 1922
    • 27. Sun Yat-sen’s Reorientation of the Revolution
      • Doc. 64. Sun Yat-sen’s Theory of Knowledge and Action, 1919
      • Doc. 65. Sun Yat-sen’s Adoption of the Russian Party System, 1923
    • 28. Liang Ch’i-ch’ao’s Review of China’s Progress, 1873–1922
  • Postface: A Further Approach to the Problem
  • Index

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