HELLENIC STUDIES SERIES
Cover: Particles in Ancient Greek Discourse: Exploring Particle Use across Genres, from Harvard University PressCover: Particles in Ancient Greek Discourse in PAPERBACK

Hellenic Studies Series 79

Particles in Ancient Greek Discourse

Exploring Particle Use across Genres

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PAPERBACK

$37.95 • £30.95 • €34.00

ISBN 9780674271296

Publication Date: 10/19/2021

Text

976 pages

6 x 9 inches

23 illus., 46 tables

Center for Hellenic Studies > Hellenic Studies Series

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  • Preface
  • How to Cite the Print Edition
  • 2021 Acknowledgments
  • I. Foundations
    • 1. General Introduction (§1)
      • 1.1. The Extent of the Project (§2–§3)
      • 1.2. Goals (§4–§7)
      • 1.3. The Term “Particle” (§8–§11)
      • 1.4. The Discourse Approach: Key Concepts (§12–§17)
      • 1.5. A Discourse Approach to Ancient Greek Particles (§18–§21)
      • 1.6. Guiding Questions (§22)
      • 1.7. Outline of the Work (§23)
        • 1.7.1. Part I (§24–§25)
        • 1.7.2. Part II (§26–§27)
        • 1.7.3. Part III (§28–§29)
        • 1.7.4. Part IV (§30–§31)
        • 1.7.5. Part V (§32–§33)
    • 2. From σύνδεσμοι to Particulae [Mark de Kreij]
      • 2.1. Introduction (§1–§3)
      • 2.2. Early Study of Grammar (§4–§8)
      • 2.3. The Téchnē Attributed to Dionysius Thrax (§9–§13)
      • 2.4. Early Definitions of σύνδεσμοι (§14–§17)
      • 2.5. The Scholia
        • 2.5.1. Terminology (§18–§19)
        • 2.5.2. σύνδεσμοι in the scholia (§20–§27)
        • 2.5.3. Aristarchus on σύνδεσμοι (§28–§31)
        • 2.5.4. Redundancy (§32)
        • 2.5.5. Interchangeability (§33–§38)
        • 2.5.6. ἄν and κε(ν) (§39–§40)
        • 2.5.7. Noteworthy readings of σύνδεσμοι (§41–§46)
      • 2.6. The Téchnē and Other Early Scholarship (§47–§49)
        • 2.6.1. Trypho (§50–§51)
        • 2.6.2. Apollonius the Sophist (§52–§53)
        • 2.6.3. σύνδεσμοι in the Téchnē (§54–§57)
        • 2.6.4. Demetrius’ Style (§58–§59)
      • 2.7. Apollonius Dyscolus (§60–§65)
        • 2.7.1. Subcategories (§66–§71)
        • 2.7.2. Important topics raised by Apollonius (§72–§76)
      • 2.8. After Apollonius Dyscolus (§77–§78)
        • 2.8.1. Early grammars (§79–§81)
        • 2.8.2. Late antique scholia to the Téchnē (§82–§84)
        • 2.8.3. The medieval lexicographers (§85–§89)
      • 2.9. A Renaissance of the Particle (§90–§91)
    • 3. Approaches to Particles and Discourse Markers [Annemieke Drummen]
      • 3.1. Introduction (§1–§5)
      • 3.2. Terminology, Definition, and Classification (§6–§15)
      • 3.3. Different Approaches in Discourse-Marker Studies (§16)
        • 3.3.1. Coherence approaches (§17–§24)
        • 3.3.2. Conversation Analysis (§25–§32)
        • 3.3.3. Relevance Theory (§33–§40)
        • 3.3.4. Construction Grammar (§41–§51)
      • 3.4. Further Relevant Studies (§52–§57)
      • 3.5. Studies on Particles and Discourse Markers in Ancient Greek and Latin (§58–§74)
      • 3.6. Conclusions (§75–§77)
    • 4. General Conclusions (§1)
      • 4.1. Particles Invite Sensitivity to Discourse (§2–§6)
      • 4.2. What to Look Out For in Connection with Particles (§7–§11)
      • 4.3. Particles, Text, and Literature (§12–§16)
      • 4.4. Directions in Ancient Greek Particle Studies (§17–§19)
  • II. Particle Use in Homer and Pindar [Mark de Kreij]
    • 1. Introduction (§1–§5)
      • 1.1. Starting Points (§6–§10)
        • 1.1.1. Sneak preview (§11–§15)
    • 2. Discourse Acts: The Domain of Particle Analysis (§1–§2)
      • 2.1. Introduction (§3–§8)
        • 2.1.1. Kôlon, intonation unit, discourse act (§9–§20)
        • 2.1.2. Distinguishing potential discourse acts (§21–§23)
      • 2.2. Discourse Acts in Homer (§24–§30)
        • 2.2.1. Homeric δέ (§31–§36)
      • 2.3. Discourse Acts in Pindar (§37–§45)
      • 2.4. μέν in Homer and Pindar (§46–§48)
        • 2.4.1. μέν projecting acts and moves (§49–§56)
        • 2.4.2. Small-scope μέν (§57–§62)
      • 2.5. Priming Acts (§63)
        • 2.5.1. Priming acts in Homeric narrative (§64–§71)
        • 2.5.2. Priming acts in Pindar (§72)
          • 2.5.2.1. Pindaric priming acts with second-person pronouns (§73–§79)
      • 2.6. Conclusions (§80–§82)
    • 3. Moves: Particles at Discourse Transitions (§1)
      • 3.1. Moves (§2–§5)
        • 3.1.1. Move transitions (§6–§11)
      • 3.2. Particles in Narrative (§12–§13)
        • 3.2.1. Narrative moves (§14–§19)
        • 3.2.2. Narrative beginnings: γάρ (§20–§29)
          • 3.2.2.1. καὶ γάρ (§30–§32)
        • 3.2.3. ἤδη and ἦ marking beginnings (§33–§44)
        • 3.2.4. Other narrative beginnings (§45–§50)
      • 3.3. Move Transitions in Homeric Narrative (§51–§52)
        • 3.3.1. Homeric δή I: Marking narrative steps (§53–§58)
        • 3.3.2. Homeric δή II: Intensifying constituents or acts (§59–§63)
        • 3.3.3. Homeric δή: Conclusions (§64)
      • 3.4. Move Transitions in Pindaric Discourse
        • 3.4.1. Particles at move transitions in narrative (§65–§67)
        • 3.4.2. The discursive flow of lyric song: Pythian 2 (§68–§76)
      • 3.5. Conclusions (§77–§81)
    • 4. Discourse Memory: The Negotiation of Shared Knowledge (§1–§4)
      • 4.1. Discourse Memory (§5–§10)
      • 4.2. Unframed Discourse (§11–§14)
        • 4.2.1. γάρ and unframed discourse in Homeric epic (§15–§23)
        • 4.2.2. γάρ and unframed discourse in Pindar (§24–§25)
        • 4.2.3. γάρ in Homer and Pindar: An overview (§26–§28)
      • 4.3. Particles in the Homeric Simile (§29–§31)
        • 4.3.1. τε in the Homeric simile (§32–§37)
        • 4.3.2. ἄρα in the Homeric simile and beyond (§38–§41)
        • 4.3.3. The linguistic form of the simile (§42–§45)
      • 4.4. Scripts, Scenarios, and Traditional Knowledge (§46–§49)
        • 4.4.1. Particles in two recurrent themes (§50–§53)
      • 4.5. τε in Pindar (§54)
        • 4.5.1. “Epic” τε in Pindar (§55–§57)
        • 4.5.2. Copulative τε in Pindar (§58–§68)
      • 4.6. Conclusions (§69–§72)
    • 5. Particles and Anaphoric Reference: A Discourse Perspective on Particles with Third-Person Pronouns (§1–§3)
      • 5.1. A Discourse Approach to Anaphoric Reference (§4–§10)
      • 5.2. ὁ and ὅς (§11–§17)
      • 5.3. ὁ/ὅς + Particle in Homer (§18)
        • 5.3.1. ὁ δέ (§19–§26)
        • 5.3.2. ὅ γε (§27–§50)
        • 5.3.3. ὁ δ᾽ἄρα and ὅ(ς) ῥα (§51–§62)
        • 5.3.4. ὁ δή and ὃς δή (§63–§71)
      • 5.4. Participant Tracking in a Pindaric Ode: Isthmian 2 (§72–§79)
      • 5.5. Conclusions (§80–§84)
  • III. Particle Use in Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes [Annemieke Drummen]
    • 1. Introduction (§1–§2)
      • 1.1. The Performative Context (§3–§6)
      • 1.2. Themes and Findings (§7–§18)
    • 2. Varying One’s Speech: Discourse Patterns
      • 2.1. Introduction (§1–§3)
        • 2.1.1. Theoretical background: Discourse patterns and registers (§4–§9)
        • 2.1.2. Research on linguistic variation in ancient Greek drama (§10–§15)
        • 2.1.3. Methodology in this chapter (§16–§21)
      • 2.2. Distribution as Input for Interpretation (§22–§23)
        • 2.2.1. δέ (§24–§32)
        • 2.2.2. καί (§33–§38)
        • 2.2.3. τε (§39–§49)
        • 2.2.4. γάρ (§50–§57)
        • 2.2.5. γε and δῆτα (§58–§63)
        • 2.2.6. ἀλλά (§64–§68)
        • 2.2.7. μέν (§69–§72)
        • 2.2.8. δή (§73–§79)
        • 2.2.9. οὖν (§80–§84)
        • 2.2.10. ἦ (§85–§89)
      • 2.3. Conclusions (§90–§95)
      • Appendix: Non-Significant Distributions
    • 3. Reusing Others’ Words: Resonance
      • 3.1. Introduction (§1–§2)
        • 3.1.1. What is dialogic resonance? (§3–§7)
        • 3.1.2. Studies on resonance in modern languages (§8–§14)
        • 3.1.3. Studies on resonance in ancient Greek (§15–§24)
        • 3.1.4. This chapter (§25–§26)
      • 3.2. Resonance in Tragedy and Comedy
        • 3.2.1. Functions of resonance (§27–§32)
        • 3.2.2. Resonance used by speaking characters
          • 3.2.2.1. Resonance stressing unity of speakers and actions (§33–§38)
          • 3.2.2.2. Resonance stressing differences (§39–§49)
        • 3.2.3. Resonance used by playwrights
          • 3.2.3.1. Resonance stressing a theme (§50–§56)
          • 3.2.3.2. Resonance characterizing a speaker and an interaction (§57–§62)
          • 3.2.3.3. Resonance used for humor (§63–§69)
          • 3.2.3.4. Resonance creating parody (§70–§72)
        • 3.2.4. Conclusions about resonance in tragedy and comedy (§73)
      • 3.3. The Role of Particles in the Process of Resonance
        • 3.3.1. Particles indicating how resonance is used (§74–§75)
          • 3.3.1.1. γε (§76–§79)
          • 3.3.1.2. δέ γε/δέ… γε (§80–§83)
          • 3.3.1.3. δῆτα (§84–§88)
          • 3.3.1.4. καί (§89–§94)
          • 3.3.1.5. γάρ (§95–§98)
        • 3.3.2. Particles triggering resonance themselves (§99–§102)
      • 3.4. Conclusions (§103–§108)
    • 4. Speaking in Turns: Conversation Analysis
      • 4.1. Introduction
        • 4.1.1. Tragic and comic conversation (§1–§6)
        • 4.1.2. Conversation Analysis (CA) (§7–§23)
        • 4.1.3. Applying CA to particles in tragedy and comedy (§24–§25)
      • 4.2. Turn-Taking (§26–§31)
      • 4.3. Sequence Organization (§32)
        • 4.3.1. Adjacency pairs and adjacency-pair series (§33–§42)
        • 4.3.2. Pair expansions (§43–§48)
      • 4.4. Preference Organization (§49)
        • 4.4.1. Preferred responses (§50–§52)
        • 4.4.2. Dispreferred responses (§53–§56)
      • 4.5. The Actions Performed by Turns (§57)
        • 4.5.1. τοι (§58–§61)
        • 4.5.2. Turn-initial γε (§62–§64)
        • 4.5.3. Utterance starts without particles (§65–§70)
      • 4.6. Conclusions (§71–§72)
      • Appendix: Quantitative Observations on Turn-Initial Expressions (§73–§75)
    • 5. Reflecting Emotional States of Mind: Calmness versus Agitation
      • 5.1. Introduction (§1–§8)
      • 5.2. Approaches to Emotions
        • 5.2.1. Emotions in ancient Greek texts (§9–§21)
        • 5.2.2. Calmness versus agitation beyond ancient Greek (§22–§25)
      • 5.3. Reflections of Calmness and Agitation (§26)
        • 5.3.1. Calmness (§27–§43)
        • 5.3.2. Agitation (§44–§50)
      • 5.4. The Different Emotional and Interactional Associations of γε in Aristophanes (§51–§52)
        • 5.4.1. γε in angry contexts (§53–§58)
        • 5.4.2. γε in stancetaking contexts, with or without agitation (§59–§63)
      • 5.5. Two Tragic Case Studies of Calm versus Agitated Discourse (§64)
        • 5.5.1. Sophocles’ calm versus agitated Oedipus (§65–§77)
        • 5.5.2. Euripides’ agitated Pentheus versus calm Dionysus (§78–§87)
      • 5.6. Conclusions (§88–§95)
  • IV. Particle Use in Herodotus and Thucydides [Anna Bonifazi]
    • 1. Introduction (§1–§3)
      • 1.1. Themes and Examples (§4–§9)
      • 1.2. A Different Perspective on Historiographical Texts (§10–§15)
    • 2. Multifunctionality of δέ, τε, and καί
      • 2.1. And-Coordination (§1–§13)
      • 2.2. δέ Marking the Beginning of a New Discourse Act (§14–§25)
        • 2.2.1. δέ in phrases (§26–§28)
        • 2.2.2. δέ in syntactically independent clauses (§29–§31)
        • 2.2.3. “Inceptive” δέ (§32–§35)
        • 2.2.4. “Apodotic” δέ (§36–§37)
        • 2.2.5. δέ in priming acts (§38–§41)
        • 2.2.6. When the force of two contiguous δέ acts changes (§24–§45)
        • 2.2.7. Interim conclusion (§46)
      • 2.3. The Continuum of τε (§47–§53)
        • 2.3.1. τε and shared knowledge (§54–§69)
        • 2.3.2. Further enrichments (§70–§73)
        • 2.3.3. τε “solitarium” and “sentential” τε (§74–§77)
        • 2.3.4. τε connections backward-oriented: The coda effect (§78–§79)
        • 2.3.5. τε connections forward-oriented: τε as a projecting marker, and τε at the beginning of lists (§80–§84)
        • 2.3.6. τε starting moves (§85–§87)
        • 2.3.7. Backward and forward τε connections: Intonational parallels? (§88–§90)
        • 2.3.8. Interim conclusion (§91–§2)
      • 2.4. καί between Link and Climax (§93–§94)
        • 2.4.1. καί in combinations (§95–§101)
        • 2.4.2. Using καί to pin down (§102–§105)
        • 2.4.3. Using καί to mark narrative peaks (§106–§107)
        • 2.4.4. Using καί to start narrative expansions (§108–§111)
        • 2.4.5. Using καί to wrap accounts up (§112–§113)
        • 2.4.6. Enrichments of καί when καί is untranslated (§114–§116)
        • 2.4.7. καί as “or” (§117–§121)
        • 2.4.8. καί and the idea of climax (§122–§132)
        • 2.4.9. Interim conclusion (§133–§137)
      • 2.5. Conclusions (§138–§146)
    • 3. Discourse Segmentation
      • 3.1. Introduction (§1–§7)
      • 3.2. Punctuation Between Grammar and Prosody (§8–§15)
      • 3.3. Modern Punctuation of Ancient Greek Texts: Focus on Syntactic Hierarchy and on Periodic Styles (§16–§27)
      • 3.4. Ancient Punctuation: Focus on Delivery (§28–§37)
      • 3.5. Ancient Segmentation: Units and Subunits Syntactically Unspecified (§38–§45)
      • 3.6. Modern Acknowledgment of Prose Colometry (§46–§52)
      • 3.7. Modern Segmentation Above the Sentence Level (§53–§56)
      • 3.8. The Roles of Particles: Matches and Mismatches (§57–§64)
      • 3.9. The Holistic Principle of Discourse Segmentation (§65–§69)
      • 3.10. Herodotus’ and Thucydides’ Discourse Acts (§70–§74)
        • 3.10.1. Segmenting an “unsuccessful” period in Herodotus (§75–§82)
        • 3.10.2. Segmenting a “descending” period in Thucydides (§83–§91)
      • 3.11. Herodotus’ and Thucydides’ Moves (§92–§106)
        • 3.11.1. Move starts with priming acts (§107–§116)
        • 3.11.2. οὗτος forms at the end or start of moves (§117–§124)
        • 3.11.3. οὗτος forms + μέν; οὗτος forms + δή; act–peninitial δή (§125–§129)
        • 3.11.4. μὲν δή and μέν νυν in Herodotus (§130–§143)
        • 3.11.5. μὲν οὖν in Thucydides (§144–§146)
      • 3.12. Conclusions (§147–§157)
    • 4. Tracking Voice and Stance
      • 4.1. Introduction (§1–§14)
      • 4.2. Tracking Voice (§15–§18)
        • 4.2.1. Speech and thought: A figured stage of voices (§19–§25)
        • 4.2.2. Authorial statements (§26–§29)
      • 4.3. The Contribution of Particles to Marking Voice (§30–§31)
        • 4.3.1. ἦ μήν in indirect speech (§32–§33)
        • 4.3.2. τοι in Herodotus, in and beyond direct speech (§34–§39)
        • 4.3.3. γε in authorial statements (§40–§44)
      • 4.4. Tracking Stance (§45)
        • 4.4.1. The stance triangle (§46–§51)
        • 4.4.2. Positioning, evaluating, and (dis)aligning in Herodotus and Thucydides (§52–§63)
        • 4.4.3. Epistemic and emotional stance: Avoiding dichotomies (§64–§69)
        • 4.4.4. Stance vs. focalization (§70–§75)
        • 4.4.5. Reader response: Eliciting the audience’s stance (§76–§80)
        • 4.4.6. Irony: The “author—audience” vector (§81–§84)
      • 4.5. δή in Herodotus: How It Connotes Voice and Stance (§85–§88)
        • 4.5.1. Voicing narrative progression (§89–§91)
        • 4.5.2. Perception of evidence (§92–§93)
        • 4.5.3. In indirect speech and indirect thought (§94–§100)
        • 4.5.4. In explicit and implicit authorial statements (§101–§103)
        • 4.5.5. “Ironic” δή (§104–§108)
        • 4.5.6. Interim conclusion (§109)
      • 4.6. δή in Thucydides: Whose Stance? (§110–§111)
        • 4.6.1. Characters’ stance in direct speech, indirect speech, and indirect thought (§112–§115)
        • 4.6.2. Implicit authorial δή, especially with superlatives (§116–§119)
        • 4.6.3. When multiple voices share the same stance (§120–§122)
        • 4.6.4. Any irony? (§123–§126)
        • 4.6.5. Interim conclusion (§127)
      • 4.7. Stance and Polyphony in the Use of δῆθεν (§128–§136)
      • 4.8. ἤδη as Stance Marker (§137–§144)
        • 4.8.1. Pragmatic relationship to δή (§145–§150)
        • 4.8.2. Author’s and characters’ ἤδη to mark firsthand experience (§151–§155)
        • 4.8.3. Thucydides’ blending of stances (§156–§159)
        • 4.8.4. Stance about time, and propositional “now” (§160–§162)
        • 4.8.5. Interim conclusion (§163–§164)
      • 4.9. ἄρα between Discourse Cohesion and the Marking of Stance (§165–§172)
      • 4.10. Conclusions (§173–§183)
    • 5. Analysis of Four Excerpts
      • 5.1. Introduction (§1–§7)
      • 5.2. Nicias’ Warnings: Thucydides 6.22–23 (§8–§29)
      • 5.3. Reactions after the Sicilian Expedition: Thucydides 8.1 (§30–§48)
      • 5.4. Reactions after Salamis: Herodotus 8.108–109.1 (§49–§69)
      • 5.5. Artabanus’ Warnings: Herodotus 7.49 and 51 (§70–§97)
      • 5.6. Conclusions (§98–§113)
      • 5.7. Appendix: The Continuous Texts Divided into Acts and Moves
        • Excerpt 1: Thucydides 6.22–23
        • Excerpt 2: Thucydides 8.1
        • Excerpt 3: Herodotus 8.108–109.1
        • Excerpt 4: Herodotus 7.49 and 51
  • Bibliography
  • Particle Index
  • Index of Subjects
  • Index Locorum

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