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One of the last great Confucians of imperial China, Chang Chih-tung (1837–1909) regarded Western-inspired educational reform as fundamental to preserving the Chinese state. In this monograph, William Ayers examines Chang’s extensive proposals for nationwide reform which culminated in the epoch-making abolition of the examination system in 1905. The author provides solid information of Chang’s career as a viceroy and adviser to the Manchu throne, as a scholar and thinker, and the founder of numerous schools and military academies. Meticulously documented, the volume is a remarkable exposition of the Confucian mind adjusting to modern circumstances; it is vital to the study of educational and cultural change in modern China.