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Freud, Biologist of the Mind

Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend, With a New Preface by the Author

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$52.00 • £45.95 • €47.95

ISBN 9780674323353

Publication Date: 01/01/1992


638 pages

6 x 9-1/4 inches

40 halftones, 1 table, 2 line illustrations


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  • Preface to the 1992 Edition
  • Preface and Guide to the Reader
  • Acknowledgments
  • Abbreviations
  • Illustrations
  • Introduction
    • Freud as Crypto-Biologist
    • The Myth of the Hero in Psychoanalytic History
  • I. Freud and Nineteenth-Century Psychophysics
    • 1. The Nature and Origins of Psychoanalysis
      • The Nature of Freud’s Achievement
      • The Origins of Psychoanalysis
        • Freud as Biologist
        • Freud as Psychologist
      • Prospects and Conclusions
    • 2. Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer: Toward a Psychophysical Theory of Hysteria (1880–95)
      • Freud’s Early Neurological Career
        • The Cocaine Episode
        • Paris and Charcot (Winter 1885/86)
        • Return to Vienna: Charcot’s Missionary to the Viennese
        • The Debates over Hypnotism
        • Resolution of the Hypnotism Debates (1888–93)
      • Freud’s Positions on Hypnotism and Mental Processes
        • The Controversy with Meynert
        • Charcot vs. Bernheim: Freud’s Dualist Alternative
      • The Breuer Period
        • The Case of Anna O.
        • Freud’s Clinical Contributions to Studies on Hysteria
      • The Breuer–Freud Theory of Hysteria
        • The Economic Aspect
        • The Dynamic Aspect
        • The Topographical Aspect
      • Historical Roots of the Breuer–Freud Theory
        • The Helmholtz School of Medicine: Fact and Fiction
        • Gustav Theodor Fechner’s Psychophysics
        • Johann Friedrich Herbart and the Dynamic Psychological Tradition
        • Contemporary Researches on Hysteria (1888–94)
      • Summary and Conclusion
    • 3. Sexuality and the Etiology of Neurosis: The Estrangement of Breuer and Freud
      • The Estrangement
        • Freud’s Technical Innovations and Their Psychoanalytic Consequences
        • Hypnoid States vs. the Theory of Defense
      • The Estrangement Reconsidered
        • Breuer’s Views on the Role of Sexuality in Neurosis
        • The Reception of Studies on Hysteria
        • Individual Temperament and Scientific Style
      • Freud’s Philosophy of Science; or, Why Sex?
        • Sexuality as “the Indispensable ‘Organic Foundation’”
        • Freud’s “Fundamental Hypotheses”
        • Nature vs. Nurture: Freud’s “Etiological Equation”
        • Freud as a Psychological Determinist
      • Overview and Aftermath of the Breuer–Freud Collaboration
    • 4. Freud’s Three Major Psychoanalytic Problems and the Project for a Scientific Psychology (1895)
      • Problem One: The Choice of Neurosis
        • The Actual Neuroses
        • The Neuropsychoses of Defense
        • The Seduction Theory
      • Problem Two: Why Sex?
        • The Theory of Deferred Action
      • Problem Three: Pathological Defense (Repression)
      • The Project for a Scientific Psychology (1895)
      • The Project’s Place in Psychoanalytic History
        • Two Widespread Misconceptions about the Project
        • Pathological Repression: The “Core of the Riddle”
        • Reconstruction of the Missing Part IV: “The Psychopathology of Repression”
      • Summary and Conclusion
  • II. Psychoanalysis: The Birth of a Genetic Psychobiology
    • 5. Wilhelm Fliess and the Mathematics of Human Sexual Biology
      • Wilhelm Fliess: The Man and His Scientific Ideas
        • Fliess’s Principal Scientific Preoccupations
      • Posterity’s Judment of Fliess
      • The Biomedical Context of Fliess’s Theories
        • Nose and Sex
        • Vital Periodicity
        • Bisexuality in Man
        • The Evidence for a 23-Day Sexual Cycle in Man
      • Two Major Misconceptions Concerning Fliess’s Theory of Periodicity
      • Fliess’s Scientific Interests in Retrospect
    • 6. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Transformation of the Fliessian Id
      • Wilhelm Fliess on Spontaneous Infantile Sexuality
        • I. Fliess’s “Organological” Emphasis: The Component Nature of Infantile Sexuality
        • II. Latency, Sublimation, and Reaction Formation as Fliessian Concepts
        • III. Libidinal Development: Its Periodic Ebb and Flow
        • IV. Bisexuality, Neurosis, and the Nature of the Unconscious Mind
        • V. Childhood Onanism and the Etiology of Neurosis
        • Fliess’s Mathematical Biology of the the Id
      • The Psychoanalytic Transformation of the Fliessian Id
        • Two Preliminary Historical Questions
        • “Critical Stages” in the Development of the Psychosexual Organization
        • Repression and the Sense of Smell
        • Childhood Sexual Impulses and the Etiology of Hysterical Seduction Fantasies
        • Abandonment of the Seduction Theory
        • Self-Analysis
        • Further Developments in the Libido Theory (1897–1905)
      • The Estrangement
        • Freud’s Neurosis
        • Rivalry and Reductionism
        • The Weininger–Swoboda Affair
        • Priority and Plagiarism as Transformational Constructs
        • Aftermath of the Estrangement
        • Freud’s Theory of Paranoia
      • The Fliess Period in Retrospect
        • From Physicalism to Geneticism
        • The Freud–Fliess Relationship in Its Wider Darwinian and Evolutionary Contexts
    • 7. The Darwinian Revolution’s Legacy to Psychology and Psychoanalysis
      • Darwin as Psychologist
        • Darwin and Child Psychology
      • Darwinism and Medical Psychology
        • Darwin on Sex
        • Darwinian Instinct Theory: The Immediate Medical Impact
      • Darwinism and Psychoanalysis: An Overview
        • Struggle and Conflict as Mental Paradigm
        • Historical Truth: The Past as Key to the Present
        • Psychosexual Stages and the Biogenetic Law
        • Freud’s Fundamental Mechanisms of Pathological Development
        • Freud as Psycho-Lamarckian
      • Summary and Conclusion: Darwin’s Influence in Retrospect
    • 8. Freud and the Sexologists
      • The Emergent Science of Sexual Pathology
        • Krafft-Ebing’s Theory of “Psychopathia Sexualis”
      • The Challenge from Association Psychology
        • Krafft-Ebing’s Response
      • The Passing of Degeneration Theory and the Emergence of “Libido Sexualis” as a Biogenetic Concept
        • The Phylogeny of Sex
        • Krafft-Ebing and Freud
      • The Science of Normal Sexual Development
        • Albert Moll’s Contributions to Sexual Science
        • Havelock Ellis: Studies in the Psychology of Sex
        • The Influence of Moll and Ellis
      • Sex from the Anthropological Point of View
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • 9. Dreams and the Psychopathology of Everyday Life
      • The Prehistory of Freud’s Dream Theory
      • Freud’s Early Theory of Dreams
      • Freud’s Mature (Genetic) Theory of Dreams
        • Apparent Exceptions to Freud’s Early Theory (as Solved by the Later Theory)
        • Basic Mechanisms of Dreaming: Sleep, Regression, Censorship, and the Dream-Work
        • Sources and Motives of Dreaming
      • The Problem of Interpretation: Dreams, Sexuality, and Neurosis
        • Major Misconceptions Stemming from Freud’s (1900) Omissions
        • Later Developments in the Theory of Dream Interpretation
      • The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
      • Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious
      • Conclusion
    • 10. Evolutionary Biology Resolves Freud’s Three Psychoanalytic Problems (1905–39)
      • Problem One: The Nature of Repression and Morality
        • Phase One, 1893–97: Freud’s Early Theory of Repression (Defense)
        • Phase Two, 1896/97–1913: Organic Repression and the Sense of Smell
        • Phase Three, 1912/13–1923: The Phylogenetic Origins of Civilization and Morality
        • Phase Four, 1923–39: The Superego
      • Problem Two: Why Sex?
        • Phase One, 1893–97: Sexuality as “an Indispensable Premiss”
        • Phase Two, 1896/97–1913: Sex, Organic Repression, and Neurosis
        • Phase Three, 1913–30: The “Diphasic Onset” of Sexuality
        • Phase Four, 1930–39: The Final Synthesis
      • Problem Three: The Choice of Neurosis
        • Phase One, 1893–97: Actual Neurosis, Psychoneurosis, and the Seduction Theory
        • Phase Two, 1897–1913: Developmental (Proximate-Causal) Solutions
        • Phase Three, 1913–39: Ultimate Biological Solutions
      • Summary and Conclusion
    • 11. Life (Eros) and Death Instincts: Culmination of a Biogenetic Romance
      • Three Inconsistencies in Psychoanalytic Theory (1910–20)
      • Ferenczi’s Biogenetic Resolution of the Evolution/Involution Paradox
      • Beyond the Pleasure Principle
      • Two Common Misconceptions about Freud’s Death Instinct
      • Aftermath of the Eros/Death Instinct Dichotomy
      • Summary and Conclusion
        • Biology as the “Land of Unlimited Possibilities”
  • III. Ideology, Myth, and History in the Origins of Psychoanalysis
    • 12. Freud as Crypto-Biologist: The Politics of Scientific Independence
      • The Quest for an Independent Science
        • Personal Considerations and the Opposition from Without
        • Opposition from Within
      • The General Reception of Freudianism: Freud Reinterpreted
      • Summary and Conclusion
    • 13. The Myth of the Hero in the Psychoanalytic Movement
      • The Myth of the Hero in Psychoanalytic History
      • The Reception of Freud’s Theories: Myth and Actuality
        • Origins of the “Hostile-Reception” Myth
        • Sources of Opposition to Freud’s Theories
        • The English Context
        • The Viennese Context
        • Freud’s Professorial Appointment
      • Scientific Priority as Revolutionary Propaganda
        • Priority and Transformations in Ideas
      • Freud’s Personal Myth of the Hero
      • The Rise of the Movement as a Revolutionary Organization
        • Freud’s Followers-Turned-Biographers
      • Freud Myths and the Sociology of Knowledge
      • Overview and Conclusion
      • Supplement to Chapter 13: Catalogue of Major Freud Myths
    • 14. Epilogue and Conclusion
      • Psychophysics, Psycho-Lamarckism, and the Biogenetic Law in Psychoanalysis
      • Freud’s Place in the History of Ideas
      • The Indelible Nature of Myth
  • Appendices
    • Appendix A: Two Published Accounts Detailing Josef Breuer’s 4 November 1895 Defense of Freud’s Views on Sexuality and Neurosis
    • Appendix B: Josef Breuer’s Metapsychology: The Matter of the “Remarkable Paradox”
    • Appendix C: Dr. Felix Gattel’s Scientific Collaboration with Freud (1897/98)
    • Appendix D: The Dating of Freud’s Reading of Albert Moll’s Untersuchungen über die Libido sexualis
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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