Cover: The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees, from Harvard University PressCover: The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees in E-DITION

The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees

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Product Details

E-DITION

$65.00 • €60.00

ISBN 9780674418776

Publication Date: 01/01/1967

566 pages

187 halftones, 267 line illustrations, 45 tables

Belknap Press

World

Harvard University Press has partnered with De Gruyter to make available for sale worldwide virtually all in-copyright HUP books that had become unavailable since their original publication. The 2,800 titles in the “e-ditions” program can be purchased individually as PDF eBooks or as hardcover reprint (“print-on-demand”) editions via the “Available from De Gruyter” link above. They are also available to institutions in ten separate subject-area packages that reflect the entire spectrum of the Press’s catalog. More about the E-ditions Program »

  • Foreword to the Paperback Edition, by Thomas D. Seeley
  • An Appreciation of Karl von Frisch, by Martin Lindauer
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • One: The Dance of Bees
    • I. History
    • II. Methods in General
        • 1. The observation hive
        • 2. Heatable observation hives
        • 3. Rooms for bees
        • 4. Marking the bees with numbers
        • 5. We set up an artificial feeding place
        • 6. Automatic recording of visits to the observation place
        • 7. Cleaning the equipment: scents as sources of error
        • 8. How bees are put to work or brought home
        • 9. Measurement of the tempo and direction of dancing
        • 10. Selection of the bees
    • III. The Round Dance as a Means of Communication when Nectar Sources Are Nearby
      • A. The objective is known to the bees informed
        • 1. The scouts
        • 2. The round dance
        • 3. Contact without dancing can also be effective with other members of the same group
        • 4. Diffuse information given when bees are fed at sugar-water dishes
        • 5. Distinct information given when bees feed at flowers
        • 6. Odors as a means of communication
        • 7. The pollen collectors
        • 8. The dance floor
        • 9. Grouping according to odor
        • Summary
      • B. The objective is not known to the bees informed
        • 10. Recruitment of additional helpers
        • 11. New forces are aroused only when needed
        • 12. How do the recruits find their objective?
        • 13. The odor of the food sources as a guide to the newcomers
        • 14. Experiments with flowers
        • 15. The adhesiveness of odors to the bee’s body
        • 16. Absence of communication about colors and shapes
        • 17. The role of the scent organ
        • Summary
    • IV. The Tail-Wagging Dance as a Means of Communication when Food Sources Are Distant
        • 1. Description of the tail-wagging dance
        • 2. The transition from the round dance to the tail-wagging dance
        • 3. Comparison of nectar and pollen collectors
        • Summary
      • A. The indication of distance
        • 4. The tempo of the dance
        • 5. The influence of internal factors on the dance tempo
        • 6. The influence of external factors on the tempo of dancing
          • a. Temperature
          • b. The wind
          • c. Gradient of the flight path
          • d. Pharmaceutical agents
        • 7. How accurately can newcomers follow the distance indications? Stepwise experiments (Studenversuche)
        • 8. What part of the tail-wagging dance is the signal that defines the distance?
          • a. The components of the tail-wagging dance and their correlation with distance
          • b. Experiments to vary components of the dance independently
          • c. Comparison of the precision of searching and the accuracy of distance indication
        • 9. How does the dancer gauge the distance?
          • a. Bees do not signal the absolute distance to the goal
          • b. The indication of distance is not based on the duration of the flight
          • c. The expenditure of energy as a measure of the distance
        • 10. The significance of the outward and the homeward flight in the indication of distance
        • 11. The shape of the curve for distance
        • Summary
      • B. The indication of direction
        • 12. First hints of the mode of indicating the direction of the goal
        • 13. The indication of direction on a horizontal surface
        • 14. The indication of direction on the surface of a vertical comb
        • 15. Dances on an oblique comb surface
        • 16. Individual differences in the indication of direction, and the influence of age
        • 17. Comparison of the effects of round dances and tail-wagging dances
        • 18. How precisely is the indication of direction followed by the newcomers? Experiments in a fan-shaped pattern
        • 19. Dances when the sun is in the zenith
        • 20. No indication of direction upward or downward
        • 21. The significance of the outbound and homebound flights for the indication of direction
        • 22. Detour experiments
          • a. First observations and preliminary experiments
          • b. Experiments on the Schafberg
          • c. Experiments with Italian and Indian bees
          • d. The biological aspect
          • e. Detour experiments with bees on foot
        • 23. The indication of direction in a crosswind
        • 24. “Misdirection”
          • a. Light-dependent “misdirection”
          • b. “Misdirection” due to the force of gravity (“residual misdirection”)
        • 25. The role of the scent organ and floral odors with distant sources of food
        • 26. We look for a feeding station from directions supplied by the bees
        • Summary
    • V. Dependence of the Dances on the Profitability of Foraging Activity
        • 1. Factors determining the release and liveliness of the dances
          • a. The sweetness of the sugar solution
          • b. The purity of the sweet taste
          • c. Ease of obtaining the solution
          • d. Viscosity
          • e. Load
          • f. Nearness of the food source
          • g. Floral fragrance
          • h. Form of the food container
          • i. Uniform flow from the source of food
          • j. General status of nourishment in the colony
          • k. Improvement of the food
          • l. Time of day
          • m. Weather
        • 2. Regulation of supply and demand on the flower market
        • 3. The clocks of bees and of flowers
        • Summary
    • VI. Guidance by Scent
        • 1. Historical aspects
        • 2. Methods
        • 3. Results
        • 4. Verification—but no useful application
        • Summary
    • VII. Application of the Dances to Other Objectives
        • 1. Water
        • 2. Bee glue (propolis)
        • 3. Dwellings
        • Summary
    • VIII. Other Dance Forms
        • 1. Jostling run, spasmodic dance, and sickle dance
        • 2. The buzzing run
        • 3. Grooming dance (shaking dance)
        • 4. Jerking dance (D-VAV)
        • 5. Trembling dance
        • Summary
    • IX. Danceless Communication by Means of Sounds and Scents
        • 1. Sounds
        • 2. Odors
        • Summary
    • X. Variants of the “Language of the Bees”
        • 1. Racial differences (“dialects”)
        • 2. Differences among species: the Indian bees
        • 3. From primitive to successful messenger service with the stingless bees (Meliponini)
        • 4. A brief glance at other social insects
        • Summary
    • XI. Phylogeny and Symbolism of the “Language of the Bees”
        • Summary
  • Two: The Orientation of Bees on the Way to the Goal
    • XII. Orientation on Long-Distance Flights
      • A. Landmarks
      • B. The sun as a compass
        • 1. Displacement experiments
        • 2. Competition between the celestial compass and landmarks
        • 3. The contribution of the time sense to orientation, and knowledge of the sun’s course
        • 4. Perception of the sun through a cloud cover
        • Summary
      • C. Orientation by polarized light
        • 5. The polarized light of the sky
        • 6. Demonstration of orientation by polarized light
        • 7. The connection between the polarization pattern and the position of the sun. Experiments in the shadow of a mountain
        • 8. The use of artificial polarization patterns when the sky is cloud covered
        • 9. The relative significance of the sun and polarization of the sky
        • 10. What color range is effective in the perception of polarization?
        • 11. What degree of polarization is needed for orientation?
        • 12. On the function of the bees’ ocelli
        • 13. Spontaneous orientation relative to the plane of vibration of polarized light
        • 14. Is perception of polarization direct or indirect?
          • a. Partial climination of the eyes
          • b. Alteration of the reflected pattern
          • c. Indirect and direct orientation in other animals
        • 15. The analyzer for polarized light
          • a. Is the analyzer in the dioptric system?
          • b. The radical analyzer in the insects’ ommatidia
        • 16. Structure of the visual rods and perception of polarized light in other groups of animals
        • Summary
      • D. A glance at other animals
        • 17. Orientation to the plane of vibration of polarized light
        • 18. The celestial compass
          • a. Arthropods
          • b. Vertebrates
        • 19. Orientation to a magnetic field
        • Summary
    • XIII. Orientation when Near the Goal
      • A. The orientation flights
      • B. Optical orientation nearby
        • 1. The bees’ color sense
        • 2. Form vision
        • 3. Vision in bees and the appearance of flowers
      • C. Orientation nearby by means of the sense of smell and taste
        • 4. Olfactory discrimination in bees
        • 5. The location of the sense of smell
        • 6. The capacity to localize by smelling
        • 7. The bees’ olfactory acuity
        • 8. The biological significance of floral odor
        • 9. The sense of taste
        • Summary
  • Retrospect
  • References
  • Index

Awards & Accolades

  • Karl von Frisch Is Co-Winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
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