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Cover: Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, from Harvard University PressCover: Man and Nature in PAPERBACK

Man and Nature

Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action

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$50.00 • £40.95 • €45.00

ISBN 9780674544529

Publication Date: 01/01/1965

Short

  • Introduction by David Lowenthal
  • A Note on the Text
  • Preface
  • Chapter I: Introductory
    • Natural Advantages of the Territory of the Roman Empire
    • Physical Decay of that Territory and of other parts of the Old World
    • Causes of the Decay
    • New School of Geographers
    • Reaction of Man upon Nature
    • Observation of Nature
    • Comical and Geological
    • Influences Geographical
    • Influence of Man
    • Uncertainty of our Meteorological Knowledge
    • Mechanical Effects produced by Man on the surface of the Earth
    • Importance and Possibility of Physical Restoration
    • Stability of Nature
    • Restoration of Disturbed Harmonies
    • Destructiveness of Man
    • Human and Brute Action Compared
    • Physical Improvement
    • Arrest of Physical Decay of New Countries
    • Forms and Formations most liable to Physical Degradation
    • Physical Decay of New Countries
    • Corrupt Influence of Private Corporations
    • Note
  • Chapter II: Transfer, Modification, and Extirpation of Vegetable and of Animal Species
    • Modern Geography embraces Organic Life
    • Transfer of Vegetable Life
    • Foreign Plants grown in the United States
    • American Plants grown in Europe
    • Modes of Introduction of Foreign Plants
    • Vegetables, how affected by transfer to Foreign Soils
    • Extirpation of Vegetables
    • Origin of Domestic Plants
    • Organic Life as a Geological and Geographical Agency
    • Number of Quadrupeds in the United States
    • Origin and Transfer of Domestic Quadrupeds
    • Extirpation of Quadrupeds
    • Numbers of Birds in the United States
    • Birds as Sowers and Consumers of Seeds, and as Destroyers of Insects
    • Diminution and Extirpation of Birds
    • Introduction of Birds
    • Utility of Insects and Worms
    • Introduction of Insects
    • Destruction of Insects
    • Reptiles
    • Destruction of Fish
    • Introduction and Breeding of Fish
    • Extirpation of Aquatic Animals
    • Minute Organisms
  • Chapter III: The Woods
    • The Habitable Earth originally Wooded
    • The Forest does not furnish Food for Man
    • First Removal of the Woods
    • Effects of Fire on Forest Soil
    • Effects of the Destruction of the Forest
    • Electrical Influence of Trees
    • Chemical Influence of the Forest
    • Influence of the Forest, considered as Inorganic Matter, on Temperature
      • a. Absorbing and Emitting Surface
      • b. Trees as Conductors of Heat
      • c. Trees in Summer and in Winter
      • d. Dead Products of Trees
      • e. Trees as a Shelter to Grounds to the leeward of them
      • f. Trees as a Protection against Malaria
    • The Forest, as Inorganic Matter, tends to mitigate extremes
    • Trees as Organisms: Specific Heat
    • Total Influence of the Forest on Temperature
    • Influence of Forests on the Humidity of the Air and the Earth
      • a. as Inorganic Matter
      • b. as Organic-Wood Mosses and Fungi-Flow of Sap-Absorption and Exhalation of Moisture by Trees
    • Balance of Conflicting Influences
    • Influence of the Forest on Temperature and Precipitation
    • Influence of the Forest on the Humidity of the Soil
    • Its Influence on the Flow of Springs
    • The Forest in Winter General Consequences of the Destruction of the Forest Condition of the Forest, and its Literature in different Countries
    • The Influence of the Forest on Inundations
    • Destructive Action of Torrents
    • Transporting Power of Rivers
    • The Po and its Deposits
    • Mountain Slides
    • Protection against the Fall of Rocks and Avalanches by Trees
    • Principal Causes of the Destruction of the Forest
    • American Forest Trees
    • Special Causes of the Destruction of European Woods
    • Royal Forests and Game Laws
    • Small Forest Plants, and Vitality of Seeds
    • Utility of the Forest
    • The Forests of Europe
    • Forests of the United States and Canada
    • The Economy of the Forest
    • European and American Trees Compared
    • Sylviculture
    • Instability of American Life
  • Chapter IV: The Waters
    • Land artificially won from the Waters
      • a. Exclusion of the Sea by Diking
      • b. Draining of Lakes and Marshes
      • c. Geographical Influence of such Operations
    • Lowering of Lakes
    • Mountain Lakes
    • Climatic Effects of Draining Lakes and Marshes
    • Geographical and Climatic Effects of Aqueducts, Reservoirs, and Canals
    • Surface and Underdraining, and their Climatic and Geographical Effects
    • Irrigation and its Climatic and Geographical Effects
    • Inundations and Torrents
      • a. River Embankments
      • b. Floods of the Ardèche
      • c. Crushing Force of Torrents
      • d. Inundations of 1856 in France
      • e. Remedies against Inundations—Consequences if the Nile had been confined by Lateral Dikes
    • Deposits of the Tuscan Rivers
    • Improvements in the Val di Chiana Improvements in the Tuscan Maremma
    • Obstruction of River Mouths
    • Subterranean Waters
    • Artesian Wells
    • Artificial Springs
    • Economizing Precipitation
  • Chapter V: The Sands
    • Origin of Sand
    • Sand now carried down to the Sea
    • The Sands of Egypt and the adjacent Desert
    • The Suez Canal
    • The Sands of Egypt
    • Coast Dunes and Sand Plains
    • Sand Banks
    • Dunes on Coast of America
    • Dunes of Western Europe
    • Formation of Dunes
    • Character of Dune Sand
    • Interior Structure of Dunes
    • Form of Dunes
    • Geological Importance of Dunes
    • Inland Dunes
    • Age, Character, and Permanence of Dunes
    • Use of Dunes as Barrier against the Sea
    • Encroachments of the Sea
    • The Liimfjord
    • Coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Holland, and France
    • Drifting of Dune Sands
    • Dunes of Gascony
    • Dunes of Denmark
    • Dunes of Prussia
    • Control of Dunes by Man
    • Artificial Formation of Dunes
    • Protection of Dunes
    • Trees suitable for Dune Plantations
    • Extent of Dunes in Europe
    • Dune Vineyards of Cap Breton
    • Removal of Dunes
    • Inland Sand Plains
    • The Landes of Gascony
    • The Belgian Campine
    • Sands and Steppes of Eastern Europe
    • Advantages of Reclaiming the Sands
    • Government Works of Improvement
  • Chapter VI: Projected or Possible Geographical Changes by Man
    • Cutting of Marine Isthmuses
    • The Suez Canal
    • Canal across Isthmus of Darien
    • Canals to the Dead Sea
    • Maritime Canals in Greece
    • Canal of Saves
    • Cape Cod
    • Canal Diversion of the Nile
    • Changes in the Caspian
    • Improvements in North American Hydrography
    • Diversion of the Rhine
    • Draining of the Zuidersee
    • Waters of the Karst
    • Subterranean Waters of Greece
    • Soil below Rock
    • Covering Rock with Earth
    • Wadies of Arabia Petraea
    • Incidental Effects of Human Action
    • Resistance to great Natural Forces
    • Effects of Mining
    • Espy’s Theories
    • River Sediment
    • Nothing small in Nature
  • Index

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