Cover: The Philosophy of the Kalam in HARDCOVER

The Philosophy of the Kalam

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$216.00 • £172.95 • €194.50

ISBN 9780674665804

Publication Date: 01/01/1976


810 pages


  • The Kalam
    • I. The Term Kalam
    • II. The Kalam According to Shahrastānī and Ibn Haldūn
    • III. The Kalam According to Maimonides
    • IV. Influences
      • 1. Christianity
      • 2. Greek Philosophy
      • 3. Iranian and Indian Religions
      • 4. Judaism
    • V. Origin, Structure, Diversity
    • VI. Christian and Jewish Kalam
      • Introductory Statement
      • 1. Christian Kalam
      • 2. Jewish Kalam
  • Attributes
    • I. The Muslim Attributes and the Christian Trinity
    • II. Denial of the Reality of Attributes
    • III. Created Attributes
    • IV. Modes
      • 1. Mu’ammar’s ma’nā
      • 2. Abū Hāshim’s ahwāl
      • 3. Opposition to Abū Hāshim
    • V. The Semantic Aspect of the Problem of Attributes
  • The Koran
    • I. The Uncreated Koran
      • 1. Origin of the Doctrine of the Uncreated Koran
      • 2. The Unraised Problem of Inlibration
        • a. Ibn Kullāb and the Denial of Inlibration
        • b. Ibn Hanbal and the Affirmation of Inlibration
        • c. The Hanbalite Ash’arī
        • d. The Kullabite Ash’arī and Ash’arites
        • e. The Hanbalite Ibn Hazm
    • II. The Created Koran
      • 1. The Denial of the Uncreated Koran and the Denial of Eternal Attributes
      • 2. The Created Koran as a Pre-Existent Created Heavenly Koran
      • 3. The Denial of a Pre-Existent Heavenly Koran
    • III. The Formal Creeds on Inlibration
      • 1. The Wasiyyah
      • 2. Nasafī and Taftāzānī
      • 3. Fadālī
    • IV. The Terms Muhdath, Hadath, and Hādith as Applied to the Koran
  • Islam and Christianity
    • I. Trinity and Incarnation in the Koran
    • II. Trinity and Incarnation in the Kalam
    • III. The Philosopher Kindī and Yahyā Ibn ’adī on the Trinity
    • IV. An Unknown Splinter Group of Nestorians
    • V. Muslim Attributes in Medieval Christianity
  • Creation of the World
    • I. Creation Ex Nihilo
      • 1. Historical Background
      • 2. The Kalam Controversy over the Nonexistent (al-ma’dūm) as a Controversy over Ex Nihilo
    • II. Arguments for Creation
      • 1. Argument from Finitudes and the Reconstruction of Its Original Form in John Philoponus
      • 2. Argument from the Analogy of Things in the World
      • 3. Argument from the Aggregation and Segregation of Atoms
      • 4. Argument from the Createdness of the Accidents of the Component Parts of the World
      • 5. Argument from the Impossibility of an Infinite by Succession
      • 6. Argument from Particularization
      • 7. Argument from Preponderation
      • 8. Argument from Immortal Souls
    • III. The Kalam Arguments for Creation in Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, and Bonaventura
  • Atomism
    • I. Affirmation of Atomism
      • 1. Origin of Atomism in the Kalam
      • 2. An Unknown Pseudo-Democritean Fragment and the Unextendedness of Atoms in the Kalam
      • 3. Greek Descriptions of Atoms as Reflected in the Atomism of the Kalam
    • II. The Denial of Atomism and the Theories of Latency (kumūn) and the Leap (al-ta frah)
  • Causality
    • I. The Denial of Causality
      • 1. The Duration and Destruction of Things
      • 2. The Theory of Custom (’ādah) and Its Formulation by Ghāzalī
      • 3. Averroes’ Criticism of the Denial of Causality and of the Theory of Custom
    • II. Affirmation Of Causality
    • III. Impossibilities
    • IV. Repercussions in Christianity
      • 1. St. Thomas on the Kalam Denial of Causality
      • 2. Nicolaus of Autrecourt and GhazālĪ’s Argument against Causality
  • Predestination and Free Will
    • I. The Predestinarians
    • II. The Libertarians
    • III. The Hātirāni in the Kalam and Ghazal as Inner Motive Powers of Human Actions
    • IV. Generated Effects (al-mutawalladāt)
    • V. The Antinomies of Free Will
      • 1. Free Will and the Predestinarian Verses in the Koran
      • 2. Free Will and the Appointed Term (ajal)
      • 3. Free Will and Preordained Sustenance
      • 4. Free Will and God’s Foreknowledge
      • 5. Free Will and God’s Power: The Theory of Acquisition (kasb iktisāb)
        • a. Pre-Ash’arite Acquisition
        • b. Acquisition in Ash’arī, Bakillānī, and Juwaynī
        • c. Acquisition in Ghazālī
  • What Is New in the Kalam
    • 1. Attributes
    • 2. The Koran
    • 3. Creation
    • 4. Atomism
    • 5. Causality
    • 6. Predestination
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliographical Note
  • Bibliography
  • Index of References

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