Cover: Scale and Scope in PAPERBACK

Scale and Scope

The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism

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Product Details

PAPERBACK

$52.50 • £42.95 • €47.50

ISBN 9780674789951

Publication Date: 03/15/1994

Short

780 pages

6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches

19 figures, 25 tables

Belknap Press

World

  • List of Tables*
  • List of Figures**
  • I. Introduction: Scale and Scope
    • 1. The Modern Industrial Enterprise
    • 2. Scale, Scope, and Organizational Capabilities
      • The New Institution
      • Historical Attributes
      • Economies of Scale and Scope in Production
      • Economies of Scale and Scope in Distribution
      • Building the Integrative Hierarchy
      • First-Mover Advantages and Oligopolistic Competition
      • Continuing Growth of the Modern Enterprise
        • Horizontal and Vertical Combination
        • Geographical Expansion and Product Diversification
      • The Modern Enterprise in Labor-Intensive Industries
  • II. The United States: Competitive Managerial Capitalism
    • 3. The Foundations of Managerial Capitalism in American Industry
      • The Domestic Market
      • The Impact of the Railroads and Telegraph
      • The Revolution in Distribution
      • The Revolution in Production
        • Branded, Packaged Products
        • Mass-Produced Light Machinery
        • Electrical Equipment
        • Industrial Chemicals
        • Metals
      • Merger, Acquisition, and Rationalization
      • Political and Legal Responses
      • The Response of Financial Institutions
      • The Response of Educational Institutions
      • The Coming of Competitive Managerial Capitalism
    • 4. Creating Organizational Capabilities: Vertical Integration and Oligopolistic Competition
      • Oil: From Monopoly to Oligopoly
        • Creating the Monopoly
        • Changing Markets and Sources of Supply
        • Vertical Integration and Oligopolistic Competition
      • Rubber: A Stable Oligopoly
      • Industrial Materials: Evolutionary and Revolutionary Technological Change
        • Paper
        • Stone, Clay, Glass, and Cement
        • Fabricated Metals
      • Primary Metals: Technology and Industrial Concentration
        • Aluminum
        • Copper and Other Nonferrous Metals
        • Steel
      • Major Trends
    • 5. Expanding Organizational Capabilities: Investment Abroad and Product Diversification in Food and Chemicals
      • Branded, Packaged Products: Foods, Consumer Chemicals, Tobacco
        • General Characteristics
        • Selecting the Players, 1880 to World War I
        • Continuing Investment in Marketing and Distribution
        • Expansion through Direct Investment Abroad
        • Continuing Growth through Diversification
        • Diversification through Merger
        • Perishable Products
        • Scope-Related Growth
      • Industrial Chemicals
        • General Characteristics
        • The Players Selected
        • Continuing Growth through Diversification
        • Diversification through Merger
        • The Du Pont Example
      • Diversification, Organizational Complexity, and Managerial Control
    • 6. Expanding Organizational Capabilities: Investment Abroad and Product Diversification in Machinery
      • General Characteristics
      • Nonelectrical Machinery
        • The Players Selected
        • Continuing Growth though Expansion Abroad
        • Growth through Diversification
      • Transportation Equipment
        • The Players Selected
        • Expansion Abroad
        • Growth through Diversification
      • Electrical and Electronic Equipment
        • The Players Selected
        • Expansion Abroad
        • Growth through Diversification
      • Organizational Complexities and Managerial Control
      • The Dynamics of Modern Industrial Enterprise: The American Experience
  • III. Great Britain: Personal Capitalism
    • 7. The Continuing Commitment to Personal Capitalism in British Industry
      • Underlying Differences
      • Prototypes of British Industrial Enterprise: Cadbury Brothers and Imperial Tobacco
      • Domestic and Foreign Markets
      • The Impact of the Railroads
      • The Revolution in Distribution
      • The Revolution in Production
        • Entrepreneurial Success: Branded, Packaged Products
        • Entrepreneurial Success: Rubber, Glass, Explosives, Alkalies, and Fibers
        • Entrepreneurial Failure: Machinery, Electrical Equipment, Organic Chemicals, Electrochemicals, and Metals
        • Accounting for Entrepreneurial Failure
      • Growth through Merger and Acquisition, British Style
      • Continuing Dominance of Personal Management
    • 8. Creating Organizational Capabilities: Success and Failure in the Stable Industries
      • The Impact of World War I
      • The Modern Industrial Enterprise during the Interwar Years
      • Oil: The Creation of Organizational Capabilities
      • Rubber: The Enhancement of Organizational Capabilities
      • Industrial Materials: Organizational Capabilities Constrained by the Ways of Personal Management
        • Rayon
        • Stone, Clay, and Glass
        • Paper
        • Metal Fabricating
        • Metal Making
      • Textiles
      • Costs of the Failure to Develop Organizational Capabilities
    • 9. Creating Organizational Capabilities: Success and Failure in the Dynamic Industries
      • Machinery
        • Nonelectrical Machinery: Continuing Foreign Dominance
        • Transportation Equipment
        • Electrical Equipment: Catching Up
      • Industrial Chemicals
        • The Personally Managed Firms
        • Imperial Chemical Industries: Organizational Achievement
      • Branded, Packaged Products
        • The Bastion of the Family Firm
        • Expansion Overseas and Product Diversification
        • Perishable Products
        • Unilever: From Personal to Collective Management
      • Implications of the British Experience
  • IV. Germany: Cooperative Managerial Capitalism
    • 10. The Foundations of Managerial Capitalism in German Industry
      • Similarities and Differences
      • Two German Industrial Enterprises: Gebrüder Stollwerck and Accumulatoren-Fabrik AG
      • Domestic and Foreign Markets
      • The Impact of the Railroads
      • The Railroads and the New Financial Institutions
      • Changes in Distribution
      • The Legal and Educational Environment
      • The Coming of Cooperative Managerial Capitalism
    • 11. Creating Organizational Capabilities: The Lesser Industries
      • The Second Industrial Revolution
      • Branded, Packaged Products: Limited Entrepreneurial Response
      • Other Lesser Industries: Effective Entrepreneurial Response
        • Oil: Late Challengers
        • First Movers, European Style: Rubber, Rayon, Alkalies, and Explosives
        • First Movers, American Style: Light, Mass-Produced Machinery
        • The German Entrepreneurial Response in the Lesser Industries
        • Textiles: A Labor-Intensive Industry
    • 12. Creating Organizational Capabilities: The Great Industries
      • Nonelectrical Machinery: Exploiting Economies of Scope
      • Electrical Machinery: Exploiting Economies of Scale and Scope
        • Siemens and AEG: Creating Industrial Giants
        • Merger and Rationalization
      • Chemicals: Exploiting Economies of Scope
        • The Dye Makers: Creating Capabilities
        • The Dye Makers: Interfirm Cooperation
        • Other World Leaders in Pharmaceuticals, Agricultural Chemicals, and Electrochemicals
      • Metals: Exploiting Economies of Scale
        • First Movers in Nonferrous Metals
        • Steel: Europe’s Leaders
      • Organizational Capabilities and Industrial Power
    • 13. War and Crises: Recovery in the Lesser Industries
      • War and Postwar Crises
      • Impact on Interfirm Relationships
        • The Growth of I.G.’s and Konzerne
        • The Changing Role of Banks
      • Recovery in the Lesser Industries after Stabilization
        • Branded, Packaged Products and Textiles: Weak Recovery
        • Oil: Dismemberment
        • Rubber, Rayon, Alkalies, Explosives, and Light Machinery: Strong Recovery
        • Transportation Equipment: A New Start
      • Recovery as a Function of Organizational Capabilities
    • 14. Recovery in the Great Industries
      • Nonelectrical Industrial Machinery: Revival and Rationalization
      • Electrical Machinery
        • Rapid Recovery and Continued Modernization
        • The Evolving Structure of the Leaders
      • Metals
        • Steel: Merger, Rationalization, and Restructuring
        • Nonferrous Metals: The Return of Metallgesellschaft
      • Chemicals
        • The Formation of I.G. Farben
        • Rationalization at I.G. Farben
        • I.G. Farben’s Changing Structure: Failure to Achieve Overall Control
        • The Independents
      • The German Experience: The Evolution of Cooperative Managerial Capitalism
  • Conclusion: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism
    • Organizational Capabilities as the Core Dynamic
      • First Movers and Challengers
      • Challengers from Abroad and from Other Industries
    • Post–World War II Developments
      • The Transformation of the Global Economy
      • Continuing Role of the Modern Industrial Enterprise
      • Continuing Growth
    • A New Era of Managerial Capitalism?
  • Notes
  • Credits
  • Index
  • * Tables
    • 1. The world’s industrial production, 1870–1938
    • 2. Long-term changes in shares of major sectors in total output, United States, Great Britain, and Germany
    • 3. Long-term changes in shares of subdivisions of the industrial sector in total output, United States, Great Britain, and Germany
    • 4. Long-term changes in the sectoral distribution of the labor force, United States, Great Britain, and Germany
    • 5. The world’s largest industrial enterprises with more than 20,000 employees, by industry and country, 1973
    • 6. The 200 largest industrial enterprises in the United States, by industry, 1917–1973
    • 7. The 200 largest industrial enterprises in Great Britain, by industry, 1919–1973
    • 8. the 200 largest industrial enterprises in Germany, by industry, 1913–1973
    • 9. Population and GDP per capita at 1970 U.S. prices, United States, Great Britain, and Germany, 1870–1979
    • 10. Manufacturers’ domestic distribution channels and concentration ratios in materials industries, 1929–1954
    • 11. Percentage of total output produced by U.S. Steel Corporation, 1901–1927
    • 12. Manufacturers’ domestic distribution channels and concentration ratios in labor-intensive industries, 1929–1954
    • 13. Manufacturers’ domestic distribution channels and concentration ratios in the food, tobacco, and consumer-chemical industries, 1935–1954
    • 14. Establishment of manufacturing operations in Great Britain by U.S. industrial enterprises, 1900–1971
    • 15. Establishment of manufacturing operations in Germany by U.S. industrial enterprises, 1900–1971
    • 16. Method of U.S. firms’ entry into Great Britain, 1900–1971
    • 17. Method of U.S. firms’ entry into Germany, 1900–1971
    • 18. Changes in shares of branches of manufacturing in output of total manufacturing grouped by rapidity of growth in initial period, United States, 1880–1948
    • 19. Production of steel ingots and castings, by process, Great Britain, United States, and Germany, 1875–1914
    • 20. The largest industrial enterprises in Great Britain in 1919, 1929, and 1948
    • 21. The most important railway transactions of the Darmstädter Bank and the Disconto-Gesellschaft
    • 22. Product line of the Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg (MAN) in the late 1920s
    • 23. Rationalization in the production of Vereinigte Stahlwerke (VSt), 1933
    • 24. Share of the U.S. market in the personal computer industry, 1976–1982
    • 25. Multinational enterprises, classified by structure and by diversity of products made abroad for 162 American industrial enterprises, 1966
  • ** Figures
    • 1. The multiunit, multifunctional enterprise
    • 2. The multidivisional structure
    • 3. Organization chart of Armour & Company, 1907
    • 4. Du Pont Company structure after the reorganization of 1911
    • 5. Change in gross fixed assets of major U.S. steel companies, 1900–1950
    • 6. Total advertising and selling expenses per dollar of net sales for 91 U.S. industries, 1940
    • 7. Management of British Westinghouse in 1917
    • 8. Management of Cadbury’s in the 1930s
    • 9. ICI organizational chart, March 1931
    • 10. Organization chart of Unilever Corporation, 1946
    • 11. Organization chart of Accumulatoren-Fabrik (AFA), 1913
    • 12. The Cologne factory of Maschinenbau-Anstalt Humboldt, 1916
    • 13. Organization of Siemens & Halske, August 1930
    • 14. Organization of Siemens-Schuckertwerke, August 1927
    • 15. The historical background of Vereinigte Stahlwerke Aktiengesellschaft, 1926
    • 16. Structure of Vereinigte Stahlwerke Aktiengesellschaft, 1934
    • 17. Organization of I.G. Farben, 1930
    • 18. Operating responsibilities of the members of the Central Committee of I.G. Farben after 1930
    • 19. I.G. Farben’s total turnover in millions of RM, 1926–1939

Awards & Accolades

  • Leo Melamed Prize for Outstanding Research in Finance, University of Chicago Graduate School of Business
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