Cover: Science as a Way of Knowing: The Foundations of Modern Biology, from Harvard University PressCover: Science as a Way of Knowing in PAPERBACK

Science as a Way of Knowing

The Foundations of Modern Biology

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Product Details

PAPERBACK

$50.00 • £40.95 • €45.00

ISBN 9780674794825

Publication Date: 09/15/1999

Short

544 pages

6-3/8 x 9-1/4 inches

40 halftones, 60 line illustrations, 3 tables

World

  • Introduction
  • A Brief Conceptual Framework for Biology
  • Part One: Understanding Nature
    • 1. The Antecedents of Scientific Thought
      • Animism, Totemism, and Shamanism
      • The Paleolithic View
      • Mesopotamia
      • Egypt
    • 2. Aristotle and the Greek View of Nature
      • The Science of Animal Biology
      • The Parts of Animals
      • The Classification of Animals
      • The Aristotelian System
      • Basic Questions
    • 3. Those Rational Greeks?
      • Theophrastus and the Science of Botany
      • The Roman Pliny
      • Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine
      • Erasistratus
      • Galen of Pergamum
      • The Greek Miracle
    • 4. The Judeo-Christian Worldview
      • The Bishop of Hippo
      • Scholastic Thought
      • Islamic Science
      • Books on Beasts
      • Antecedents of a Revolution
    • 5. The Revival of Science
      • Andreas Vesalius and the Study of Structure
      • William Harvey and the Study of Function
      • Sir Francis Bacon’s Great Instauration
      • Induction, Hypothesis, Deduction
      • The Very Small—Animalcules
      • Robert Hooke and the Discovery of Cells
    • 6. Figur’d Stones and Plastick Virtue
      • Marine Life on Mountain Tops?
      • Figured Stones of Unknown Creatures
      • Baron Cuvier
      • Quarries of the Paris Basin
      • Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism
      • William Smith and the Geological Column
      • Understanding Nature in 1850
  • Part Two: The Growth of Evolutionary Thought
    • 7. The Paradigm of Evolution
      • First Questions
      • The Paradigm of Natural Theology
      • First Answers
    • 8. Testing Darwins Hypotheses
      • Have Life Forms Changed over Time?
      • Do Species Evolve into Different Species over Time?
      • Has There Been Time Enough for Evolution?
      • Is Natural Selection the Mechanism of Change?
      • The Genetic Basis of Natural Selection
      • Accounting for the Diversity of Life
    • 9. In the Light of Evolution
      • Comparative Anatomy
      • Embryonic Development
      • Classification
      • Microstructure
      • Molecular Processes
    • 10. Life over Time
      • The Origin of Life
      • The Rise of Multicelled Organisms
      • What Is a Phylum?
      • Burgess Shale Metazoans
      • Early Evolution of the Vertebrates
      • The Age of Dinosaurs
      • Birds, Mammals, and Flowering Plants
      • The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits
      • Human Evolution
      • The Role of Extinction in Evolution
  • Part Three: Classical Genetics
    • 11. Pangenesis
      • What Is the Question?
      • Hippocrates and Aristotle
      • The Darwinian Answer
      • Assembling the Data
      • Formulating the Hypothesis by Induction
      • Galton’s Rabbits
    • 12. The Cell Theory
      • The Discovery of Cells: Robert Hooke
      • Schwann and Cells in Animals
      • Gametes as Cells
      • Omnis cellula e cellula?
      • The Technology of Cell Research
    • 13. The Hypothesis of Chromosomal Continuity
      • The Ephemeral Nucleus
      • Schneider, Flemming, and Cell Division
      • The Chromosomes and inheritance
      • Gamete Formation
      • Fertilization
    • 14. Mendel and the Birth of Genetics
      • Model for Monohybrid Crosses
      • Model for Dihybrid Crosses
      • Mendel’s Laws
      • Initial Opposition to Mendelism
    • 15. Genetics + Cytology: 1900–1910
      • Sutton’s Model
      • The Cytological Basis of Mendel’s Laws
      • Boveri and Abnormal Chromosome Sets
      • Variations in Mendelian Ratios
      • The Discovery of Sex Chromosomes
    • 16. The Genetics of the Fruit Fly
      • Morgan’s First Hypothesis
      • Morgan’s Second Hypothesis
      • The Fly Room
      • Linkage and Crossing-Over
      • The Cytological Proof of Crossing-Over
      • Mapping the Chromosomes
      • The Final Proof
      • The Determinants of Sex
      • The Conceptual Foundations of Classical Genetics
    • 17. The Structure and Function of Genes
      • One Gene, One Enzyme
      • The Substance of Inheritance
      • The Watson-Crick Model of DNA
      • Genes and the Synthesis of Proteins
      • The Genetic Code
  • Part Four: The Enigma of Development
    • 18. First Principles
      • The Peripatetic Stagirite
      • The Death and Rebirth of Scientific Thought
      • Harvey and Malpighi
      • A Two-Millennial Summing Up
      • Preformation versus Epigenesis
    • 19. The Century of Discovery
      • Von Baer’s Discovery of the Mammalian Ovum
      • Darwin’s Contribution to Embryology
      • Haeckel and Recapitulation
    • 20. Descriptive Embryology
      • Germ Layers
      • The External Development of the Amphibian Embryo
      • The Internal Development of the Amphibian Embryo
    • 21. The Dawn of Analytical Embryology
      • His, Roux, and Mosaic Development
      • Driesch and Regulative Development
      • Novelty in Development
      • Cell Lineage
      • Nucleus or Cytoplasm?
      • Fin de Siècle
    • 22. Interactions during Development
      • Amphibian Organizers
      • Secondary Organizers
      • The Reacting Tissue
      • The Chemical Nature of the Organizer
      • Putting It All Together
  • Conclusion
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • Illustration Credits
  • Index

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