Cover: The Social Behavior of the Bees in HARDCOVER

The Social Behavior of the Bees

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Product Details

HARDCOVER

$78.00 • £62.95 • €70.00

ISBN 9780674811751

Publication Date: 01/01/1974

Short

418 pages

66 halftones, 428 line illustraions, 41 tables

Belknap Press

World

  • Introduction
  • Part I. Melittological Background
    • Chapter 1. Bees, Their Development, Structure, and Function
      • A. Development
        • 1. Eggs.
        • 2. Larvae.
        • 3. Pupae and teneral adults.
      • B. Adults
        • 1. External structure.
        • 2. Internal organs.
        • 3. Sensory organs.
      • C. Conclusions
    • Chapter 2. The Origin and History of Bees
      • A. Ancestry
      • B. Evolutionary history among bees
        • 1. External structure.
        • 2. Internal organs.
        • 3. Sensory organs.
      • C. Conclusions
    • Chapter 3. Systematic Positions of Social Bees
    • Chapter 4. Some Terminology for Bees’ Nests and Social Life
      • A. Nests
      • B. Colonies
  • Part II. Comparative Social Behavior
    • Chapter 5. Kinds of Societies among Bees
      • A. Sleeping clusters
      • B. Levels of social organization
      • C. Solitary bees
      • D. Aggregations
      • E. Parasocial colonies
        • 1. Communal colonies.
        • 2. Quasisocial colonies.
        • 3. Semisocial colonies.
      • F. Subsocial colonies
      • G. Eusocial colonies
        • 1. Primitively eusocial colonies.
        • 2. Highly eusocial colonies.
      • H. Progression and reversion
    • Chapter 6. The Origin and Growth of Aggregations and Colonies
      • A. Aggregations
      • B. Parasocial colonies
        • 1. Communal colonies.
        • 2. Sernisocial colonies.
      • C. Allodapine bees
      • D. Primitively eusocial colonies
      • E. Highly eusocial colonies
      • F. Colony size
      • G. The importance of numbers
      • H. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 7. The Social Significance of the Nest and Its Contents
      • A. Social significance of nest structure
      • B. Responses of larvae to the construct
      • C. Responses of adults to stored food
      • D. Interactions between adults and young
        • 1. Halictidae.
        • 2. Ceratina.
        • 3. Allodaoine bees.
        • 4. Bumblebees.
        • 5. Apis.
      • E. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 8. Male Production and Sex Ratio
      • A. Sex determination
        • 1. Genetic aspects.
        • 2. Behavioral control of sex.
        • 3. Sources of males.
      • B. Sex ratios
      • C. Seasonal variation in sex ratio
    • Chapter 9. Caste Differences
      • A. Caste differences within semisocial colonies
      • B. Caste differences in primitively eusocial colonies
        • 1. Halictinae.
        • 2. Allodapine bees.
        • 3. Bumblebees.
      • C. Caste differences in highly eusocia1 bees
      • D. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 10. Caste Determination
      • A. Caste determination in Halictinae
      • B. Caste determination in bumblebees
      • C. Caste determination in the highly eusocial bees
        • 1. Trigona, Lestrimelitta, Meliponula, and Dactylurina.
        • 2. Apis.
        • 3. Melipona.
      • D. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 11. Control of Gyne Production and Worker Laying
      • A. Queen replacement and supersedure
      • B. Killing of excess gynes
      • C. Castes among orphan groups of workers
        • 1. Primitively eusocial bees.
        • 2. Highly eusocial bees.
      • D. Inhibition of reproductivity of workers
    • Chapter 12. Division of Labor among Workers
      • A. Permanent division of labor among workers
      • B. Ontogenetic division of labor among workers
        • 1. Primitively eusocial bees.
        • 2. Apis.
        • 3. Meliponini.
      • C. Division of labor among foraging workers
      • D. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 13. Colony Multiplication
      • A. Swarming in stingless bees
      • B. Swarming in Apis
      • C. The origin of swarming behavior
    • Chapter 14. Foraging and Orientation
      • A. Foraging flights
      • B. Pollen gathering and transport
      • C. Building materials and transport
      • D. Orientation
        • 1. Short- and moderate-distance orientation.
        • 2. Long-distance orientation.
    • Chapter 15. Communication Concerning Food Sources
      • A. Nonspecific communication
      • B. Relation between flight range and communication
      • C. Communication in stingless honeybees
      • D. Communication in Apis
        • 1. Olfactory communication in Apis.
        • 2. Dance communication in Apis millifera.
        • 3. Comparative studies and evolution of dance communication.
    • Chapter 16. The Handling and Transfer of Materials within Nests
      • A. Foods
      • B. Food handling and interadult contacts within the nest
      • C. Treatment of the queen
      • D. Egg eating
        • 1. Social control by egg eating.
        • 2. Trophic egg eating in Meliponini.
      • E. Feces
      • F. Building materials
      • G. The flow of materials
    • Chapter 17. The Control of Physical Conditions within Nests
      • A. Halictine bees
        • 1. Nest burrows and chambers.
        • 2. Cells.
      • B. Bumblebees
      • C. Apis dorsata
      • D. Apis mellifera
        • 1. Cooling.
        • 2. Solution of the water problem.
        • 3. Warming.
      • E. Stingless bees
      • F. Possible control of humidity and respiratory gases
      • G. Absconding
    • Chapter 18. Defense
      • A. Defense against unrelated animals
        • 1. Burrowing bees and allodapines.
        • 2. Bumblebees.
        • 3. Stingless honeybees.
        • 4. Apis.
      • B. Defense against fungi and microorganisms
      • C. Colony odor and defense
    • Chapter 19. Mixed Colonies: Parasitic and Robber Bees
      • A. Mixed colonies of nonparasitic bees
      • B. Parasitic queen-replacing species
        • 1. Bombini.
        • 2. Cerantinini.
        • 3. Sphecodes (Microsphecodes) and Paralictus.
      • C. Robber species
    • Chapter 20. The Evolution of Social Behavior in Bees
      • A. Features associated with social evolution in bees
      • B. Origins of eusocial behavior in bees
        • 1. The groups involved.
        • 2.The number of origins.
      • C. An analysis of social levels
      • D. Selection for social attributes
        • 1. Kin selection.
        • 2. Indications that social groups frequently contain distantly related individuals.
        • 3. The reproductive system of workers.
        • 4. Influence of natural enemies and other environmental factors.
        • 5. Selection for joining and accepting behavior patterns.
        • 6. Familial and semisocial evolution of eusociality.
        • 7. Joining and generation time.
        • 8. Environmentally disfavored females as workers.
        • 9. Evolution of caste differences.
        • 10. The influence of male haploidy.
        • 11. Conclusions.
  • Part III. Natural History
    • Chapter 21. The Orchid Bees (Euglossini)
    • Chapter 22. Semisocial Halictinae
      • A. Augochloropsis sparsilis
        • 1. Nests.
        • 2. Life cycle.
      • B. Pseudaugochloropsis
        • 1. Nests.
        • 2. Life cycle.
    • Chapter 23. Primitively Eusocial Behavior in the Augochlorini
      • A. Augochlorella
        • 1. Nests.
        • 2. Life cycle.
      • B. Augochlora
    • Chapter 24. Primitively Eusocial Behavior in Subgenus Dialictus
      • A. Nesting
      • B. Life History
    • Chapter 25. Primitively Eusocial Behavior in the Subgenus Euylaeus
      • A. Lasioglossum duplex and its relatives
        • 1. Nests.
        • 2. Life cycle.
        • 3. Lasioglossum calceatum and others.
      • B. Lasioglossum malachurum
        • 1. Nests.
        • 2. Life cycle.
      • C. Lasioglossum marginatum
        • 1. Nests.
        • 2. Life cycle.
    • Chapter 26. Primitively Eusocial Behavior in the Genus Halictus
    • Chapter 27. Allodapine Bees
      • A. Nests
      • B. Solitary species
      • C. Subsocial species
      • D. Colonies of adults
      • E. Life cycles of social species
      • F. Larvae
    • Chapter 28. Bumblebees
      • A. Nesting
        • 1. Nests.
        • 2. Gyne nests.
        • 3. The brood during the eusocial phase.
        • 4. Group characters.
      • B. Life cycle
      • C. Economic importance and foraging
      • D. Colonies of adults
      • E. Life cycles of social species
      • F. Larvae
    • Chapter 29. Stingless Honeybees
      • A. Nest locations
      • B. Nest architecture and contents
        • 1. Construction materials.
        • 2. Batumen.
        • 3. The entrance.
        • 4. Pillars and connectives.
        • 5. Food storage.
        • 6. Brood chamber.
        • 7. The relation of architecture and classification.
      • C. Mating
      • D. Importance to man
    • Chapter 30. True Honeybees
      • A. The species and races of honeybees
      • B. Architecture
      • C. Brood
      • D. The unfavorable season
      • E. Spring growth in temperate regions
      • F. Gyne production
      • G. Mating
      • H. Swarming
      • I. Supersedure and emergency gyne production
      • J. Importance of Apis to man
  • Appendix: Scientific Names
  • Glossary
  • Literature Cited
  • Index

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