SOURCE BOOKS IN THE HISTORY OF THE SCIENCES
Cover: A Source Book in Medieval Science in HARDCOVER

A Source Book in Medieval Science

Edited by Edward Grant

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HARDCOVER

$216.00 • £172.95 • €194.50

ISBN 9780674823600

Publication Date: 01/01/1974

Short

884 pages

7 x 10 inches

165 line illustrations, 22 tables

Source Books in the History of the Sciences

World

Related Subjects

  • Early Middle Ages
    • The Latin Encyclopedists
      • 1. On the Quadrivium, or Four Mathematical Sciences [Isidore of Seville]
      • 2. On Arithmetic [Boethius]
      • 3. On the Universe and Its Parts [Isidore of Seville]
      • 4. On the Order of the Planets [Macrobius]
      • 5. On the Motion of Mercury and Venus around the Sun [Chalcidius; Martianus Capella]
      • 6. On Ocean and Tides [Macrobius]
  • Later Middle Ages
    • The Translation of Greek and Arabic Science into Latin
      • 7. A List of Translations Made from Arabic into Latin in the Twelfth Century [Gerard of Cremona]
      • 8. A List of Translations Made from Greek into Latin in the Thirteenth Century [William of Moerbeke]
    • The Reaction of the Universities and Theological Authorities to Aristotelian Science and Natural Philosophy
      • 9. The Condemnation of Aristotle’s Books on Natural Philosophy in 1210 at Paris
      • 10. The Command to Expurgate Aristotle’s Books on Natural Philosophy (1231)
      • 11. The Natural Books of Aristotle in the Arts Curriculum at the University of Paris in 1255
      • 12. Statute of the Faculty of Arts Drastically Curtailing the Discussion of Theological Questions (1272)
      • 13. The Condemnation of 1277: A Selection of Articles Relevant to the History of Medieval Science
      • 14. An Objection to Theological Restrictions in the Discussion of a Scientific Question [John Buridan]
      • 15. An Assessment of Buridan’s Objections [Ludovicus (Luis) Coronel]
    • Classification of the Sciences
      • Introduction [Edward Grant]
      • 16. Classification of the Sciences [Hugh of St. Victor]
      • 17. Classification of the Sciences [Domingo Gundisalvo]
    • Logic
      • Introduction [John E. Murdoch]
      • 18. On Terms, “Suppositio,” and Consequences [William of Ockham]
    • Mathematics
      • 19. On the Importance of Studying Mathematics [Roger Bacon]
      • Arithmetic
        • 20. Arabic Numerals and Arithmetic Operations in the Most Popular Algorism of the Middle Ages [John of Sacrobosco]
        • 21. Propositions from a Theoretical Arithmetic [Jordanus of Nemore]
      • Algebra
        • 22. Six Types of Rhetorical Algebraic Equations [Al-Khwarizmi]
        • 23. Algebraic Propositions from the Treatise On Given Numbers [Jordanus of Nemore]
      • Number Theory, Probability, and Infinite Series
        • 24. Number Theory and Indeterminate Analysis [Leonardo of Pisa (Fibonacci)]
        • 25. A Proposition on Mathematical Probability [Nicole Oresme]
        • 26. Infinite Series [Nicole Oresme]
      • Proportions
        • 27. The Definitions of Book V of Euclid’s Elements in a Thirteenth-Century Version, and Commentary [Campanus of Novara]
        • 28. An Algorism of Ratios: Manipulation of Rational Exponents [Nicole Oresme]
        • 29. Rational and Irrational Exponents Distinguished [Nicole Oresme]
      • Geometry
        • 30. On the Division of Figures [Leonardo of Pisa (Fibonacci)]
        • 3l. Two Medieval Versions of Archimedes’ Quadrature of the Circle
          • a. The Abbreviated Version of Pseudo-Bradwardine
          • b. The Question of Albert of Saxony on the Quadrature of the Circle
        • 32. The Trisection of an Angle [Banu Musa; Jordanus of Nemore]
        • 33. Constructions from an Applied Geometry [Dominicus de Clavasio]
      • Trigonometry
        • 34. Trigonometry of the Sine [Richard of Wallingford]
    • Typical Scientific Questions Based on Aristotle’s Major Physical Treatises
      • Introduction [Edward Grant]
      • 35. Questions on the Eight Books of Aristotle’s Physics [Albert of Saxony]
      • 36. Questions on the Four Books of Aristotle’s On the Heavens (De caelo) [John Buridan]
      • 37. Questions on the Two Books of Aristotle’s On Generation and Corruption [Albert of Sax
    • Physics
      • Statics, Or “The Science of Weights”
        • Introduction [Edward Grant]
        • 39. On the Theory of Weight [Jordanus of Nemore]
      • Motion
        • 40. What is Motion? [William of Ockham]
      • Kinematics
        • 41. The Reduction of Curvilinear Velocities to Uniform Rectilinear Velocities [Gerard of Brussels]
        • 42. Uniform and Nonuniform Motion and the Merton College Mean Speed Theorem [William of Heytesbury]
        • 43. The Configuration of Qualities and Motions, Including a Geometric Proof of the Mean Speed Theorem [Nicole Oresme]
      • Dynamics
        • 44. Does Finite and Temporal Motion Require a Resistant Medium? The Responses of Averroes and Avempace in Comment 71
          • a. The Text of Aristotle
          • b. Averroes’ Expositio on the Text
        • 45. The Mover or Cause in Natural Motion [Averroes]
        • 46. The Medieval Aristotelian Principle of Motion: “Whatever Is Moved Is Moved by Another” [St. Thomas Aquinas]
        • 47. External and Internal Resistances to Motion [Albert of Saxony]
        • 48. The Impetus Theory of Projectile Motion [John Buridan]
        • 49. On the Cause of Acceleration of Free-falling Bodies [John Buridan]
        • 50. In Opposition to Aristotle: Contrary Motions Can Be Continuous without an Intervening Moment of Rest [Marsilius of Inghen; Galileo Galilei]
        • 51. Mathematical Representations of Motion
          • a. “Bradwardine’s Function” and the Repudiation of Four Opposition Theories on Proportions of Motion [Thomas Bradwardine]
          • b. Extended Application of “Bradwardine’s Function” [Nicole Oresme]
      • Atomism
        • 52. The Development and Criticism of Atomism in the Later Middle Ages
          • Thomas Bradwardine
          • Algazel
          • John Duns Scotus
          • Henry of Harclay and William of Alnwick
      • On Vacuum
        • 53. Nature Abhors a Vacuum
          • A Natural Vacuum Denied [Albert of Saxony]
          • Experiments Demonstrating that Nature Abhors a Vacuum [John Buridan]
          • Experiments Demonstrating that Nature Abhors a Vacuum [Marsilius of Inghen]
          • Experiments Demonstrating that Nature Abhors a Vacuum [Galileo Galilei]
        • 54. Nature Does Not Abhor a Vacuum [Blaise Pascal]
        • 55. Motion in a Hypothetical Void
          • A Kinematic Argument for Finite Motion in a Hypothetical Void [St. Thomas Aquinas]
          • Dynamic Arguments Justifying Motion in a Hypothetical Void [Albert of Saxony]
          • His Earliest Law of Motion and His Arguments for Finite Velocity in a Void [Galileo Galilei]
          • Unequal Homogeneous Bodies Fall with Equal Velocity in a Vacuum [Thomas Bradwardine]
          • Unequal Homogeneous Bodies Fall with Equal Velocity in a Vacuum [Albert of Saxony]
          • Unequal Homogeneous Bodies Fall with Equal Velocity in a Vacuum [Galileo Galilei]
        • 56. On Interstitial Vacua
          • Explanation of Condensation and Rarefaction, and Denial of Interstitial Vacua [Marsilius of Inghen]
          • The Existence of Interstitial Vacua Affirmed [Nicholas of Autrecourt]
          • The Existence of Interstitial Vacua Affirmed [Galileo Galilei]
      • Measurement Of Forces
        • 57. On Maximum and Minimum Powers [John Buridan]
      • Magnetism
        • 58. An Encyclopedist’s Description of the Magnet [Bartholomew the Englishman]
        • 59. The First Systematic Description in Europe of the Properties of the Lodestone [Peter Peregrinus]
      • Optics
        • 60. The Encyclopedic Tradition in Optics
          • Natural Questions [Adelard of Bath]
          • Concerning the Natures of Things [Alexander Neckam]
          • Concerning the Properties of Things [Bartholomew the Englishman]
        • 61. Robert Grosseteste and the Revival of Optics in the West
          • Concerning Lines, Angles, and Figures [Robert Grosseteste]
          • On the Rainbow [Robert Grosseteste]
        • 62. Late Thirteenth-Century Synthesis in Optics
          • The Nature and Multiplication of Light or Species [Roger Bacon]
          • The Nature and Multiplication of Light or Species [John Pecham]
          • The Nature and Multiplication of Light or Species [Roger Bacon]
          • The Nature and Multiplication of Light or Species [Witelo]
          • The Speed of Propagation of Light or Species [Witelo]
          • The Speed of Propagation of Light or Species [Roger Bacon]
          • The Structure of the Eye [John Pecham]
          • The Lens as the Sensitive Organ of the Eye [Alhazen]
          • The Lens as the Sensitive Organ of the Eye [Roger Bacon]
          • The Lens as the Sensitive Organ of the Eye [Witelo]
          • The Act of Sight [Alhazen]
          • The Act of Sight [Witelo]
          • The Act of Sight [John Pecham]
          • The Debate about Visual Rays [Alhazen]
          • The Debate about Visual Rays [Roger Bacon]
          • The Debate about Visual Rays [John Pecham]
          • The Debate about Visual Rays [Witelo]
          • Psychology of Visual Perception [Roger Bacon]
          • The Geometry of Reflection [John Pecham]
          • A Problem of Image Formation by Reflection [Witelo]
          • Paraboloidal Burning Mirrors [Alhazen]
          • Paraboloidal Burning Mirrors [Witelo]
          • Causal Analysis of Reflection [Alhazen]
          • Causal Analysis of Reflection [Roger Bacon]
          • Causal Analysis of Reflection [Witelo]
          • An Instrument for Investigating Refraction [Alhazen]
          • The Geometry of Refraction [Roger Bacon]
          • The Geometry of Refraction [Witelo]
          • Image Formation by Refraction [John Pecham]
          • Image Formation by Refraction [Roger Bacon]
          • The Burning Glass [John Pecham]
          • Causal Analysis of Refraction [Roger Bacon]
          • Causal Analysis of Refraction [Witelo]
        • 63. Late Medieval Optics
          • Questions Concerning Perspective [Henry of Hesse]
          • On the Rainbow [Theodoric of Freiberg]
    • Astronomy, Astrology, and Cosmology
      • The Elements Of Astronomy
        • 64. The Two Most Popular Medieval Handbooks of the Elements of Astronomy
          • a. John of Sacrobosco: On the Sphere
          • b. Anonymous: The Theory of the Planets
        • 65. Extracts from the Alfonsine Tables and Rules for Their Use [John of Saxony]
      • Astrology
        • 66. An Attack upon Astrology [Nicole Oresme]
      • Cosmology
        • 67. On the Possible Diurnal Rotation of the Earth
          • a. Introduction [Edward Grant]
          • b. The Immobility of the Earth in the Center of the World [Ptolemy]
          • c. The Immobility of the Earth in the Center of the World [St. Thomas Aquinas]
          • d. Heraclides of Pontus and Aristarchus Mentioned as Proponents of the Earth’s Diurnal Rotation [St. Thomas Aquinas]
          • e. The Compatibility of the Earth’s Diurnal Rotation with Astronomical Phenomena [John Buridan]
          • f. The Compatibility of the Earth’s Diurnal Rotation with Astronomical Phenomena and Terrestrial Physics [Nicole Oresme]
          • g. The Compatability of the Earth’s Diurnal Rotation with Astronomical Phenomena and Terrestrial Physics [Nicolaus Copernicus]
        • 68. On Saving the Phenomena and the Reality or Unreality of Epicycles and Eccentrics
          • a. The Reality of Epicycles and Eccentrics Denied [Moses Maimonides]
          • b. The Reality of Epicycles and Eccentrics Affirmed [Bernard of Verdun]
          • c. An Intermediate Position—Epicycles Denied, Eccentrics Affirmed [John Buridan]
        • 69. On the Commensurability or Incommensurability of Celestial Motions [Nicole Oresme]
        • 70. On Comets [Albertus Magnus]
        • 71. The Possibility of a Plurality of Worlds [Nicole Oresme]
        • 72. On the Existence of an Imaginary Infinite Void Space Beyond the Finite Cosmos
          • a. Hermes Trismegistus to Asclepius: Void Beyond the Cosmos Lacks Matter but Not Spirit
        • 73. On a God-filled Extramundane Infinite Void Space
          • a. Thomas Bradwardine
          • b. Nicole Oresme
          • c. Jesuit Commentators at the College of Coimbra, Portugal
          • d. Otto von Guericke
    • Alchemy and Chemistry
      • 74. On the Formation of Minerals and Metals and the Impossibility of Alchemy [Avicenna]
      • 75. Twenty-six Arguments against Alchemy and the Responses Thereto [Petrus Bonus]
      • 76. A Description of Alchemical Operations, Procedures, and Materials [Albertus Magnus]
      • 77. How Elements Persist in a Compound [St. Thomas Aquinas; Albert of Saxony]
    • Geology, Geography, and Oceanography
      • Geology
        • 78. On the Formation of Stones and Mountains [Avicenna]
        • 79. On the Motion of the Earth’s Center of Gravity and the Formation of Mountains [John Buridan]
        • 80. On the Material, Hardness, and Fissility of Stones [Albertus Magnus]
      • Geography
        • 81. The Image or Representation of the World ([Ymago Mundi) [Pierre d’Ailly, with the Marginal Comments of Christopher Columbus]
      • Oceanography
        • 82. On the Causes of the Tides [Robert Grosseteste]
    • Biology
      • Zoology
        • 83. Descriptions of Animals from a Twelfth-Century Bestiary
        • 84. An Attempt at a Scientific Description of Animals [Albertus Magnus]
        • 85. On the Structure and Habits of Birds [Frederick II of Hohenstaufen]
        • 86. Philosophical and Theoretical Zoology [Albertus Magnus]
      • Botany
        • 87. Philosophical and Theoretical Botany [Albertus Magnus]
        • 88. An Illustration of Descriptive Botany: The Oak Tree [Albertus Magnus]
    • Medicine
      • Theory
        • 89. Early Medieval Medicine [Isidore of Seville]
      • Physiology
        • 90. The Galenic System [Joannitius (Hunain ibn Ishaq)]
        • 91. Canon [Avicenna]
      • Scientific Method
        • 92. Commentaries on Galen’s Tegni [Jacopo da Forli and Haly Rodohan]
      • Anatomy
        • 93. On Anatomy [Isidore of Seville]
        • 94. Anatomical Demonstration at Salerno: The Anatomy of the Pig [Anonymous]
        • 95. A Scholastic Anatomy: The Anatomy of Master Nicholas [Master Nicholas (?)]
        • 96. Anatomy Based on Human Dissection: The Anatomy of Mundinus [Mondino de’ Luzzi]
        • 97. A Fifteenth-Century Autopsy [Bernard Tornius]
      • Practice
        • 98. General Instructions for the Practitioner [Archimatthaeus]
      • Methods of Diagnosis
        • 99. Interpretation of the Pulse [Anonymous]
        • 100. Interpretation of the Urine [Giles of Corbeil; Arnald of Villanova]
        • 101. Interpretation of Particular Symptoms
          • a. Gilbert the Englishman: The Symptoms of Leprosy
          • b. Jordan of Turre (?): The Symptoms of Lepers
          • c. John of Mirfeld: Danger Symptoms
      • A Method of Medical Practice
        • 102. A Consilium [Ugo Benzi]
      • Treatment of Particular Ailments
        • 103. Gynecology [Trotula]
        • 104. How to Combat Spells Preventing Intercourse [Constantine the African]
        • 105. Diseases of the Skin [Theodoric, Bishop of Cervia]
        • 106. Smallpox [John Gaddesden]
        • 107. Bubonic Plague [Guy de Chauliac]
      • Tools Employed in Treatment
        • 108. Diet and Regimen [Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum]
        • 109. Drugs: Simple Medicines
          • Simple Medicines [Rufinus]
          • The Preparation and Medicinal Use of Alcohol [Taddeo Alderotti]
        • 110. Drugs: Compound Medicines
          • The Rationalization of Pharmacy [Matthaeus Platearius]
          • Traditional Empirical Pharmacy [Antidotarium Nicolai]
          • Mathematical Pharmacy [Bernard of Gordon]
      • Surgery
        • 111. History of Surgery [Guy de Chauliac]
        • 112. Salernitan Surgery [Roger of Salerno]
        • 113. Definition and Objectives of Surgery [Theodoric, Bishop of Cervia]
        • 114. Bloodletting [Lanfranc]
        • 115. The Treatment of Wounds [Theodoric, Bishop of Cervia; Henry of Mondevile; Guy de Chauliac]
        • 116. Plastic Surgery [Heinrich von Pfolspeundt]
  • Brief Author Biographies
  • Index

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