Cover: While China Faced West in PAPERBACK

Harvard East Asian Series 38

While China Faced West

American Reformers in Nationalist China, 1928–1937

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$43.00 • £37.95 • €39.95

ISBN 9780674951372

Publication Date: 01/01/1969


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  • Preface
  • 1. Introduction: China under the Nanking Government
    • Scope of the Study
    • The Westerner as a Reformer in Modern China
    • The Nanking Decade
    • The Problem of Leadership
    • Three Fundamental Quests
    • The Double Malaise
  • 2. Americans and the Nanking Government
    • Policies and Stakes
    • The Foreign Service Evaluation
    • The Agents of Reform
  • 3. Christians and the Rural Crisis
    • Background: The Crisis
    • The Village Pioneers
    • The NCC and Rural China, 1928–1933
    • Origins of the Government Invitation
    • The NCC Response
  • 4. The Missionary as Rural Reformer
    • George Shepherd’s Background
    • Impact of the Communists
    • Rural Reconstruction in Fukien
    • The Call to Kiangsi
    • The Lichuan Project: Preparatory Phase
  • 5. Lichuan: The Church on Trial
    • The High Tide of Rural Reconstruction
    • Lichuan in Operation
    • Development of the Project in 1935
    • The Unsolved Tenure Problem
    • Lichuan: Its Fate and Significance
  • 6. From Models to Training Programs: The Rockefeller Effort
    • The Need for a New Approach
    • S. M. Gunn’s Investigations
    • “China and the Rockefeller Foundation”
    • The North China Council for Rural Reconstruction
    • The Rockefeller Effort: Its Fate and Significance
  • 7. Americans and Ideological Reform: The New Life Movement
    • Context of the Kuomintang Ideological Quest
    • Origins and Nature of the Movement
    • The YMCA’s Dilemma
    • 1934–35: Christian Ambivalence
  • 8. Missionaries and the Kuomintang: The Gathering Entente
    • The Call to George Shepherd
    • New Pressures for Cooperation
    • Sian and the Altered Climate
    • Aftermath: The Reformer Bows Out
  • 9. The Fate of Gradualism in Kuomintang China—I
    • The Decade in Retrospect
    • Rural Reconstruction: Three Unmet Needs
    • Rural Reconstruction: The American Effort
  • 10. The Fate of Gradualism in Kuomintang China—II
    • Ideological Reform: The Alienated Intelligentsia
    • Ideological Uplift: The Entrapment of the Reformers
    • Gradualism’s Dilemma: The Case of George Shepherd
    • Retrospect and Aftermath
  • Epilogue
  • Abbreviations
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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