Cover: Discovering Retroviruses: Beacons in the Biosphere, from Harvard University PressCover: Discovering Retroviruses in HARDCOVER

Discovering Retroviruses

Beacons in the Biosphere

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Product Details


$27.95 • £22.95 • €25.00

ISBN 9780674971707

Publication Date: 10/15/2018


192 pages

6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches

36 color illus., 1 illus., 2 tables


  • List of Tables and Figures*
  • Introduction
  • 1. Early Pioneers
  • 2. Amending the Central Dogma
  • 3. The Origin of Retroviruses
  • 4. Retroviruses and Evolution
  • 5. Revealing the Genetic Basis of Cancer
  • 6. HIV and the AIDS Pandemic
  • Epilogue
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings
  • Acknowledgments
  • Index
  • * Tables and Figures
    • Tables
      • 1.1. Selected Timelines for Discoveries in Genetics and Retrovirology
      • 2.1. The Retrovirus Family
      • 3.1. Major Classes of Transposable Elements in the Human Genome
    • Figures
      • 1.1. Mendel’s crosses depicted in a Punnett square
      • 1.2. Genes are encoded in DNA
      • 1.3. The Watson–Crick double helix is held together by nucleotide base pairing
      • 1.4. Semi-conservative duplication of DNA
      • 1.5. Organization of the ribosome
      • 1.6. Transcription of messenger RNA from genes in DNA
      • 1.7. The genetic code
      • 1.8. Translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into protein
      • 2.1. Serial dilutions of a virus preparation and the bacteriophage plaque assay
      • 2.2. Plate assays for animal viruses
      • 2.3. Retroviral DNA synthesis and its integration into host DNA
      • 2.4. Particle architecture and genome organization of the prototype avian leukosis virus
      • 2.5. Reproduction cycle of the prototype avian leukosis virus in a host cell
      • 3.1. The Miller–Urey apparatus
      • 3.2. Self-splicing by the Tetrahymena ribozyme
      • 3.3. Successive steps in the transition from an RNA world to a DNA world
      • 3.4. The tree of life
      • 3.5. The retrotransposons
      • 3.6. Propagation of L1 LINE retrotransposons
      • 3.7. Telomeres are formed by addition of repeated sequences to chromosome ends via reverse transcription
      • 4.1. Nucleic acid hybridization
      • 4.2. Estimating the age of endogenous retroviruses from an evolutionary tree
      • 4.3. Endogenous retroviral DNA recombination induces host gene shuffling
      • 4.4. Regulatory sequences in the LTRs of endogenous retroviruses can affect host gene expression
      • 4.5. Splicing signals in HERVs can lead to altered cell messenger RNA production and abnormal protein formation
      • 4.6. The host-virus evolutionary arms race
      • 5.1. Isolation of a src probe by subtractive hybridization
      • 5.2. Signal transduction
      • 5.3. Origin of transducing retroviruses
      • 5.4. Major lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system
      • 5.5. HTLV-I provirus and genes encoding viral oncoproteins
      • 6.1. HIV antibody assay provides the first blood screen
      • 6.2. Cradle of the AIDS pandemic
      • 6.3. HIV-1 origins via cross-species transmissions of SIV
      • 6.4. Regulatory and auxiliary proteins encoded in the HIV-1 genome
      • 6.5. Life-sparing effect of HIV antiviral treatment

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“Predictive Policing” and Racial Profiling

While technology used in policing has improved, it hasn’t progressed, says Khalil Gibran Muhammad, if racial biases are built into those new technologies. This excerpt from his book, The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America, shows that for the reform called for by the current protests against systemic racism and racially-biased policing to be fulfilled, the police—especially those at the top—will need to change their pre-programmed views on race and the way they see the Black citizens they are supposed to “serve and protect.”