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The Origins of the Old Rus' Weights and Monetary Systems

Two Studies in Western Eurasian Metrology and Numismatics in the Seventh to Eleventh Centuries

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$30.50 • £26.95 • €27.95

ISBN 9780916458485

Publication Date: 08/01/1998


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  • List of Tables and Illustrations*
  • Preface and Acknowledgments
  • I. Monetary Systems in Early Medieval Western Eurasia
    • Introduction
    • Post-Roman Monetary Systems in Western Europe (Francia, England, Seventh to Ninth Centuries)
      • Charlemagne’s Currency Reform
      • The Monetary System in Anglo-Saxon England
      • The Silver ora and the healfmarc of the Vikings
      • The German mark
      • The Byzantine Monetary System
      • The Muslim Monetary System
      • Gold to Silver Ratios and Profits
    • Did the Khazars Possess a Monetary Economy?
      • Controversies
      • The Khazarian tin and altin
      • The Mystery of the “Twig-like” Signs
      • The bismar/bezmen
      • The Khazar Monetary System Reconstructed
    • The Monetary System of Volga Bulgaria
      • The Emergence of the Volga Bulgarian Monetary System
      • Adaptations to the Muslim Metrology
    • The Origin of the Old Rus’ Grivna Serebra
      • The grivna and the grivenka
      • The osminik
      • The grivna and the kuna
      • The Shilling in Old Rus’
    • The Development of the Old Rus’ Weights and Monetary Systems
      • Old Rus’ Weights and Monetary Systems in the Tenth Century
      • The Monetary System of Volodimer the Great
      • The Southern Rus’ (Kyivan) Monetary System
      • The Northern Rus’ (Novgorodian) Monetary System
      • Eleventh-Century Developments
      • The Old Rus’ System of Weights
      • Conclusion
    • Appendix: Varango-Chazarica
      • Whole Words (gud, kutR, kiltR, ubi)
      • Isolated Runes (k, s)
      • A New Interpretation
  • II. Essays on the Old Rus’ Coins
    • Introduction
    • The Iconography of Old Rus’ Coins
      • The Obverse Sides of the Types “Vladimir I–IV” and Svjatopolk “Jaroslav’s Silver”
      • Patron Saints (George, Demetrius, Peter, Michael)
      • “Tridents” and “Bidents”
    • Epigraphy of Old Rus’ Coins
      • Introductory Remarks
      • Personal Names (Princely and Baptismal)
      • The ΠΈΤΡΟΣ Inscriptions
      • The ΠΕΤΔΡ Inscriptions
      • The Formula na stole
      • The Formula “And This is His [i.e., the Ruler’s] Gold/Silver”
      • The Formula “Silver of [the Patron] Saint [N.]”
      • Sacred Legends (The Name of Jesus Christ, Votive Invocations)
      • The Formula Amen
      • Old Rus’ Numismatic Abbreviations
    • A New Classification of Old Rus’ Coins
      • Historical Commentary to the Datings
      • A New Classification
  • Appendix: The Pseudo-Hoard of Mit’kovka
  • Illustrative Tables
  • Works Cited
  • Index
  • * Tables and Illustrations
    • Tables, Figures, and Maps
      • Table 1-1. Structure of the Mitqals
      • Table 1-2. Gold to Silver Ratios
      • Table 1-3. Gains in Interzonal Exchanges
      • Figure 2-1. Weight of the 89 Khazar Dirhams
      • Figure 3-1. Weight of the Volga Bulgar Coins of the Tenth Century
      • Table 5-1. Fineness of Volodimer’s Silver Coins
      • Figure 5-1. Old Rus’ Silver Coins from the Kyiv Hoard
      • Figure 5-2. Old Rus’ Silver Coins from the Hoard of Nizyn
      • Figure 5-3. Weight of the Silver Coins of the “Vladimir III” Type
      • Map. Eastern Europe to 1220
      • Figure 7-1. “Vladimir I” Gold Inscriptions
      • Figure 7-2. “Vladimir I” Silver Inscriptions
      • Figure 7.3. “Vladimir II” Inscriptions
      • Figure 7-4. “Vladimir III” Inscriptions
      • Figure 7-5. “Vladimir IV” Inscriptions
      • Figure 7-6. “Svjatopolk” Inscriptions
      • Table 8.1. Categorization of Old Rus’ Coins
      • Table 8-2. Comparative Analysis of the Distinctive Byzantine Features in Old Rus’ Coinage
    • Illustrative Tables
      • Table I-1. The “Tridents” of the “Vladimir” Coins
      • Table I-2. The “Tridents” on “Jaroslav’s Silver” Coins
      • Table I-3. The “Bidents”
      • Table I-4. Sitting on the Throne
      • Table I-5. Royal Dress
      • Table I-6. The Pantocrator’s Nimbus
      • Table I-7. Crown Surmounted by a Cross of Five Pellets with Pendilia
      • Table I-8. Symbols of the Ruler’s Power
      • Table I-9. The Plain Cross Scepter
      • Table I-10. Comparison of the Structure of Sassanian Coins with “Jaroslav’s Silver”
      • Table I-11. Typology of Old Rus’ Coins
      • Table J. Images from the Codex Gertrudianus of Cividale

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